Agricultural Adjustment Act Text

Agricultural Adjustment Act Text

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Agricultural Adjustment Act Text

GENERAL PROVISIONS— (§§ 1281—1282a)

 
§ 1281. Short title
This chapter may be cited as the “Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938”.
 
§ 1282. Declaration of policy
It is declared to be the policy of Congress to continue the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, as amended [16 U.S.C. 590a et seq.], for the purpose of conserving national resources, preventing the wasteful use of soil fertility, and of preserving, maintaining, and rebuilding the farm and ranch land resources in the national public interest; to accomplish these purposes through the encouragement of soil-building and soil-conserving crops and practices; to assist in the marketing of agricultural commodities for domestic consumption and for export; and to regulate interstate and foreign commerce in cotton, wheat, corn, and rice to the extent necessary to provide an orderly, adequate, and balanced flow of such commodities in interstate and foreign commerce through storage of reserve supplies, loans, marketing quotas, assisting farmers to obtain insofar as practicable, parity prices for such commodities and parity of income, and assisting consumers to obtain an adequate and steady supply of such commodities at fair prices.
 
§ 1282a. Emergency supply of agricultural products
(a) Establishment of prices to insure orderly, adequate and steady supply of products
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Agriculture shall assist farmers, processors, and distributors in obtaining such prices for agricultural products that an orderly, adequate and steady supply of such products will exist for the consumers of this nation.
(b) Adjustments in maximum price of products subject to any price control or freeze order or regulation to increase supply
The President shall make appropriate adjustments in the maximum price which may be charged under the provisions of Executive Order 11723 (dated June 13, 1973) or any subsequent Executive Order for any agricultural products (at any point in the distribution chain) as to which the Secretary of Agriculture certifies to the President that the supply of the product will be reduced to unacceptably low levels as a result of any price control or freeze order or regulation and that alternative means for increasing the supply are not available.
(c) “Agricultural products” defined
Under this section, the term “agricultural products” shall include meat, poultry, vegetables, fruits and all other agricultural commodities in raw or processed form, except forestry products or fish or fishery products.
(d) Implementation of policies to encourage full production in periods of short supply at fair and reasonable prices
The Secretary of Agriculture is directed to implement policies under this Act which are designed to encourage American farmers to produce to their full capabilities during periods of short supply to assure American consumers with an adequate supply of food and fiber at fair and reasonable prices.
 
SUBCHAPTER I—ADJUSTMENT IN FREIGHT RATES, NEW USES AND MARKETS, AND DISPOSITION OF SURPLUSES (§§ 1291—1293)
 
§ 1291. Adjustments in freight rates
(a) Complaints by Secretary of Agriculture; notice of hearings
The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make complaint to the Surface Transportation Board with respect to rates, charges, tariffs, and practices relating to the transportation of farm products, and to prosecute the same before the Board. Before hearing or disposing of any complaint (filed by any person other than the Secretary) with respect to rates, charges, tariffs, and practices relating to the transportation of farm products, the Board shall cause the Secretary to be notified, and, upon application by the Secretary, shall permit the Secretary to appear and be heard.
(b) Secretary as party to proceedings
If such rate, charge, tariff, or practice complained of is one affecting the public interest, upon application by the Secretary, the Board shall make the Secretary a party to the proceeding. In such case the Secretary shall have the rights of a party before the Board and the rights of a party to invoke and pursue original and appellate judicial proceedings involving the Board’s determination. The liability of the Secretary in any such case shall extend only to liability for court costs.
(c) Utilization of records, services, etc., of Department of Agriculture
For the purposes of this section, the Surface Transportation Board is authorized to avail itself of the cooperation, records, services, and facilities of the Department of Agriculture.
(d) Cooperation with complaining farm associations
The Secretary is authorized to cooperate with and assist cooperative associations of farmers making complaint to the Surface Transportation Board with respect to rates, charges, tariffs, and practices relating to the transportation of farm products.
 
§ 1292. New uses and markets for commodities
(a) Regional research laboratories
The Secretary is authorized and directed to establish, equip, and maintain four regional research laboratories, one in each major farm producing area, and, at such laboratories, to conduct researches into and to develop new scientific, chemical, and technical uses and new and extended markets and outlets for farm commodities and products and byproducts thereof. Such research and development shall be devoted primarily to those farm commodities in which there are regular or seasonal surpluses, and their products and byproducts.
(b) Acquisition of land for laboratories; donations
For the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary is authorized to acquire land and interests therein, and to accept in the name of the United States donations of any property, real or personal, to any laboratory established pursuant to this section, and to utilize voluntary or uncompensated services at such laboratories. Donations to any one of such laboratories shall not be available for use by any other of such laboratories.
(c) Cooperation with governmental agencies, associations, etc.
In carrying out the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary is authorized and directed to cooperate with other departments or agencies of the Federal Government, States, State agricultural experiment stations, and other State agencies and institutions, counties, municipalities, business or other organizations, corporations, associations, universities, scientific societies, and individuals, upon such terms and conditions as he may prescribe.
(d) Appropriation for purposes of subsection (a)
To carry out the purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary is authorized to utilize in each fiscal year, beginning with the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1938, a sum not to exceed $4,000,000 of the funds appropriated pursuant to section 1391 of this title, or section 590o of title 16, for such fiscal year. The Secretary shall allocate one-fourth of such sum annually to each of the four laboratories established pursuant to this section.
(e) Repealed. Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1076, § 1(3), 68 Stat. 966
(f) Appropriation to Secretary of Commerce
There is allocated to the Secretary of Commerce for each fiscal year, beginning with the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1938, out of funds appropriated for such fiscal year pursuant to section 1391 of this title, or section 590o of title 16 the sum of $1,000,000 to be expended for the promotion of the sale of farm commodities and products thereof in such manner as he shall direct. Of the sum allocated under this subsection to the Secretary of Commerce for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1938, $100,000 shall be devoted to making a survey and investigation of the cause or causes of the reduction in exports of agricultural commodities from the United States, in order to ascertain methods by which the sales in foreign countries of basic agricultural commodities produced in the United States may be increased.
(g) Duty of Secretary
It shall be the duty of the Secretary to use available funds to stimulate and widen the use of all farm commodities in the United States and to increase in every practical way the flow of such commodities and the products thereof into the markets of the world.
 
§ 1293. Transferred
 
 
SUBCHAPTER II—LOANS, PARITY PAYMENTS, CONSUMER SAFEGUARDS, MARKETING QUOTAS, AND MARKETING CERTIFICATES (§§ 1301—1393)
 
Part A—Definitions, Loans, Parity Payments, and Consumer Safeguards (§§ 1301—1310a)
§ 1301. Definitions
(a) General definitions
For the purposes of this subchapter and the declaration of policy—
(1)
(A) The “parity price” for any agricultural commodity, as of any date, shall be determined by multiplying the adjusted base price of such commodity as of such date by the parity index as of such date.
(B) The “adjusted base price” of any agricultural commodity, as of any date, shall be
(i) the average of the prices received by farmers for such commodity, at such times as the Secretary may select during each year of the ten-year period ending on the 31st of December last before such date, or during each marketing season beginning in such period if the Secretary determines use of a calendar year basis to be impracticable, divided by
(ii) the ratio of the general level of prices received by farmers for agricultural commodities during such period to the general level of prices received by farmers for agricultural commodities during the period January 1910 to December 1914, inclusive. As used in this subparagraph, the term “prices” shall include wartime subsidy payments made to producers under programs designed to maintain maximum prices established under the Emergency Price Control Act of 1942.
(C) The “parity index”, as of any date, shall be the ratio of
(i) the general level of prices for articles and services that farmers buy, wages paid hired farm labor, interest on farm indebtedness secured by farm real estate, and taxes on farm real estate, for the calendar month ending last before such date to
(ii) the general level of such prices, wages, rates, and taxes during the period January 1910 to December 1914, inclusive.
(D) The prices and indices provided for herein, and the data used in computing them, shall be determined by the Secretary, whose determination shall be final.
(E) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, the transitional parity price for any agricultural commodity, computed as provided in this subparagraph, shall be used as the parity price for such commodity until such date after January 1, 1950, as such transitional parity price may be lower than the parity price, computed as provided in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, for such commodity. The transitional parity price for any agricultural commodity as of any date shall be—
(i) its parity price determined in the manner used prior to the effective date of the Agricultural Act of 1948, less
(ii) 5 per centum of the parity price so determined multiplied by the number of full calendar years (not counting 1956 in the case of basic agricultural commodities) which, as of such date, have elapsed after January 1, 1949, in the case of non-basic agricultural commodities, and after January 1, 1955, in the case of the basic agricultural commodities.
 
(F) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraphs (A) and (E) of this paragraph, if the parity price for any agricultural commodity, computed as provided in subparagraphs (A) and (E) of this paragraph, appears to be seriously out of line with the parity prices of other agricultural commodities, the Secretary may, and upon the request of a substantial number of interested producers shall, hold public hearings to determine the proper relationship between the parity price of such commodity and the parity prices of other agricultural commodities. Within sixty days after commencing such hearing the Secretary shall complete such hearing, proclaim his findings as to whether the facts require a revision of the method of computing the parity price of such commodity, and put into effect any revision so found to be required.
(G) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, the parity price for any basic agricultural commodity, as of any date during the six-year period beginning January 1, 1950, shall not be less than its parity price computed in the manner used prior to October 31, 1949.
(2) “Parity”, as applied to income, shall be that gross income from agriculture which will provide the farm operator and his family with a standard of living equivalent to those afforded persons dependent upon other gainful occupation. “Parity” as applied to income from any agricultural commodity for any year, shall be that gross income which bears the same relationship to parity income from agriculture for such year as the average gross income from such commodity for the preceding ten calendar years bears to the average gross income from agriculture for such ten calendar years.
(3) The term “interstate and foreign commerce” means sale, marketing, trade, and traffic between any State or Territory or the District of Columbia or Puerto Rico, and any place outside thereof; or between points within the same State or Territory or within the District of Columbia or Puerto Rico, through any place outside thereof; or within any Territory or within the District of Columbia or Puerto Rico.
(4) The term “affect interstate and foreign commerce” means, among other things, in such commerce, or to burden or obstruct such commerce or the free and orderly flow thereof; or to create or tend to create a surplus of any agricultural commodity which burdens or obstructs such commerce or the free and orderly flow thereof.
(5) The term “United States” means the several States and Territories and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.
(6) The term “State” includes a Territory and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.
(7) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture, and the term “Department” means the Department of Agriculture.
(8) The term “person” means an individual, partnership, firm, joint-stock company, corporation, association, trust, estate, or any agency of a State.
(9) The term “corn” means field corn.
(b) Definitions applicable to one or more commodities
For the purposes of this subchapter—
(1)
(A) “Actual production” as applied to any acreage of corn means the number of bushels of corn which the local committee determines would be harvested as grain from such acreage if all the corn on such acreage were so harvested. In case of a disagreement between the farmer and the local committee as to the actual production of the acreage of corn on the farm, or in case the local committee determines that such actual production is substantially below normal, the local committee, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, shall weigh representative samples of ear corn taken from the acreage involved, make proper deductions for moisture content, and determine the actual production of such acreage on the basis of such samples.
(B) “Actual production” of any number of acres of cotton, rice or peanuts on a farm means the actual average yield for the farm times such number of acres.
(2) “Bushel” means in the case of ear corn that amount of ear corn, including not to exceed 151/2 per centum of moisture content, which weighs seventy pounds, and in the case of shelled corn, means that amount of shelled corn including not to exceed 151/2 per centum of moisture content, which weighs fifty-six pounds.
(3)
(A) “Carry-over”, in the case of corn, rice, and peanuts for any marketing year shall be the quantity of the commodity on hand in the United States at the beginning of such marketing year, not including any quantity which was produced in the United States during the calendar year then current.
(B) “Carry-over” of cotton for any marketing year shall be the quantity of cotton on hand in the United States at the beginning of such marketing year, not including any part of the crop which was produced in the United States during the calendar year then current.
(C) “Carry-over” of wheat, for any marketing year shall be the quantity of wheat on hand in the United States at the beginning of such marketing year, not including any wheat which was produced in the United States during the calendar year then current, and not including any wheat held by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation under the Federal Crop Insurance Act [7 U.S.C.1501 et seq.].
(4)
(A) “Commercial corn-producing area” shall include all counties in which the average production of corn (excluding corn used as silage) during the ten calendar years immediately preceding the calendar year for which such area is determined, after adjustment for abnormal weather conditions, is four hundred and fifty bushels or more per farm and four bushels or more for each acre of farm land in the county.
(B) Whenever prior to February 1 of any calendar year the Secretary has reason to believe that any county which is not included in the commercial corn-producing area determined pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (A) of this subsection, but which borders upon one of the counties in such area, or that any minor civil division in a county bordering on such area, is producing (excluding corn used for silage) an average of at least four hundred and fifty bushels of corn per farm and an average of at least four bushels for each acre of farm land in the county or in the minor civil division, as the case may be, he shall cause immediate investigation to be made to determine such fact. If, upon the basis of such investigation, the Secretary finds that such county or minor civil division is likely to produce corn in such average amounts during such calendar year, he shall proclaim such determination and, commencing with such calendar year, such county shall be included in the commercial corn-producing area. In the case of a county included in the commercial corn-producing area pursuant to this subparagraph, whenever prior to February 1 of any calendar year the Secretary has reason to believe that facts justifying the inclusion of such county are not likely to exist in such calendar year, he shall cause an immediate investigation to be made with respect thereto. If, upon the basis of such investigation, the Secretary finds that such facts are not likely to exist in such calendar year, he shall proclaim such determination, and commencing with such calendar year, such county shall be excluded from the commercial corn-producing area.
(5) “Farm consumption” of corn means consumption by the farmer’s family, employees, or household, or by his work stock; or consumption by poultry or livestock on his farm if such poultry or livestock, or the products thereof, are consumed or to be consumed by the farmer’s family, employees, or household.
(6)
(A) “Market”, in the case of corn, cotton, rice, and wheat, means to dispose of, in raw or processed form, by voluntary or involuntary sale, barter, or exchange, or by gift inter vivos, and, in the case of corn and wheat, by feeding (in any form) to poultry or livestock which, or the products of which, are sold, bartered, or exchanged, or to be so disposed of, but does not include disposing of any such commodities as premium to the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation under the Federal Crop Insurance Act [7 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.].
(B) “Marketed”, “marketing”, and “for market” shall have corresponding meanings to the term “market” in the connection in which they are used.
(C) “Market”, in the case of peanuts, means to dispose of peanuts, including farmers’ stock peanuts, shelled peanuts, cleaned peanuts, or peanuts in processed form, by voluntary or involuntary sale, barter, or exchange, or by gift inter vivos.
(7) “Marketing year” means, in the case of the following commodities, the period beginning on the first and ending with the second date specified below:
Corn, September 1–August 31;
Cotton, August 1–July 31;
Rice, August 1–July 31;
Tobacco (flue-cured), July 1–June 30;
Tobacco (other than flue-cured), October 1–September 30;
Wheat, June 1–May 31.
 
(8)
(A) “National average yield” as applied to cotton or wheat shall be the national average yield per acre of the commodity during the ten calendar years in the case of wheat, and during the five calendar years in the case of cotton, preceding the year in which such national average yield is used in any computation authorized in this subchapter, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions and, in the case of wheat, but not in the case of cotton, for trends in yields.
(B) “Projected national yield” as applied to any crop of wheat shall be determined on the basis of the national yield per harvested acre of the commodity during each of the five calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such projected national yield is determined, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions affecting such yield, for trends in yields and for any significant changes in production practices.
(9) “Normal production” as applied to any number of acres of corn or rice means the normal yield for the farm times such number of acres. “Normal production” as applied to any number of acres of cotton or wheat means the projected farm yield times such number of acres.
(10)
(A) “Normal supply” in the case of corn, rice, wheat, and peanuts for any marketing year shall be
(i) the estimated domestic consumption of the commodity for the marketing year ending immediately prior to the marketing year for which normal supply is being determined, plus
(ii) the estimated exports of the commodity for the marketing year for which normal supply is being determined, plus
(iii) an allowance for carry-over. The allowance for carry-over shall be the following percentage of the sum of the consumption and exports used in computing normal supply: 15 per centum in the case of corn; 10 per centum in the case of rice; 20 per centum in the case of wheat; and 15 per centum in the case of peanuts. In determining normal supply the Secretary shall make such adjustments for current trends in consumption and for unusual conditions as he may deem necessary.
(B) The “normal supply” of cotton for any marketing year shall be the estimated domestic consumption of cotton for the marketing year for which such normal supply is being determined, plus the estimated exports of cotton for such marketing year, plus, 30 per centum of the sum of such consumption and exports as an allowance for carry-over.
(11)
(A) “Normal year’s domestic consumption”, in the case of corn and wheat, shall be the yearly average quantity of the commodity, wherever produced, that was cosumed [1] in the United States during the ten marketing years immediately preceding the marketing year in which such consumption is determined, adjusted for current trends in such consumption. 
(B) “Normal year’s domestic consumption”, in the case of cotton, shall be the yearly average quantity of the commodity produced in the United States that was consumed in the United States during the ten marketing years immediately preceding the marketing year in which such consumption is determined, adjusted for current trends in such consumption.
(C) “Normal year’s domestic consumption”, in the case of rice, shall be the yearly average quantity of rice produced in the United States that was consumed in the United States during the five marketing years immediately preceding the marketing year in which such consumption is determined, adjusted for current trends in such consumption.
(12) “Normal year’s exports” in the case of corn, cotton, rice, and wheat shall be the yearly average quantity of the commodity produced in the United States that was exported from the United States during the ten marketing years (or, in the case of rice, the five marketing years) immediately preceding the marketing year in which such exports are determined, adjusted for current trends in such exports.
(13)
(A) Repealed. Pub. L. 87–703, title III, § 320(1), Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 625.
(B) “Normal yield” for any county, in the case of peanuts, shall be the average yield per acre of peanuts for the county, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions, during the five calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such normal yield is determined. For 1942, the normal yield for any county, in the case of peanuts, shall be the average yield per acre for peanuts for the county, adjusted for abnormal conditions, during the years 1936–1940, inclusive, except that for any county in which the years 1935–1939, inclusive, are equally as representative, such period may be used in determining the normal yields for counties in the State.
(C) In applying subparagraph (A) or (B) of this paragraph, if for any such year the data are not available, or there is no actual yield, an appraised yield for such year, determined in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary, shall be used as the actual yield for such year. In applying such subparagraphs, if, on account of drought, flood, insect pests, plant disease, or other uncontrollable natural cause, the yield in any year of such ten-year period or five-year period, as the case may be, is less than 75 per centum of the average (computed without regard to such year) such year shall be eliminated in calculating the normal yield per acre.
(D) “Normal yield” for any county, in the case of rice and wheat, shall be the average yield per acre of rice or wheat, as the case may be, for the county during the five calendar years immediately preceding the year for which such normal yield is determined in the case of rice, or during the five years immediately preceding the year in which such normal yield is determined in the case of wheat, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions and for trends in yields. If for any such year data are not available, or there is no actual yield, an appraised yield for such year, determined in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary, taking into consideration the yields obtained in surrounding counties during such year and the yield in years for which data are available, shall be used as the actual yield for such year.
(E) “Normal yield” for any farm, in the case of rice and wheat, shall be the average yield per acre of rice or wheat, as the case may be, for the farm during the five calendar years immediately preceding the year for which such normal yield is determined in the case of rice, or during the five years immediately preceding the year in which such normal yield is determined in the case of wheat, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions and for trends in yields. If for any such year the data are not available or there is no actual yield, then the normal yield for the farm shall be appraised in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary, taking into consideration abnormal weather conditions, trends in yields, the normal yield for the county, the yields obtained on adjacent farms during such year and the yield in years for which data are available.
(F) In applying subparagraphs (D) and (E) of this paragraph, if on account of drought, flood, insect pests, plant disease, or other uncontrollable natural cause, the yield for any year of such five-year period is less than 75 per centum of the average, 75 per centum of such average shall be substituted therefor in calculating the normal yield per acre. If, on account of abnormally favorable weather conditions, the yield for any year of such five-year period is in excess of 125 per centum of the average, 125 per centum of such average shall be substituted therefor in calculating the normal yield per acre.
(G) “Normal yield” for any farm, in the case of corn or peanuts, shall be the average yield per acre of corn or peanuts, as the case may be, for the farm, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions, during the five calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such normal yield is determined. For 1942, the normal yield for any farm, in the case of peanuts, shall be the average yield per acre of peanuts for the farm, adjusted for abnormal conditions, during the years 1936–1940, inclusive, except that for any county in which the years 1935–1939, inclusive, are equally as representative, such period may be used in determining normal yields for farms in the county. If for any such year the data are not available or there is no actual yield, then the normal yield for the farm shall be appraised in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, taking into consideration abnormal weather conditions, the normal yield for the county, and the yield in years for which data are available.
(H) “Normal yield” for any county, for any crop of cotton, shall be the average yield per acre of cotton for the county, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions and any significant changes in production practices during the five calendar years immediately preceding the year in which the national marketing quota for such crop is proclaimed. If for any such year the data are not available, or there is no actual yield, an appraised yield for such year, determined in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary, shall be used as the actual yield for such year.
(I) “Normal yield” for any farm, for any crop of cotton, shall be the average yield per acre of cotton for the farm, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions and any significant changes in production practices during the three calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such normal yield is determined. If for any such year the data are not available, or there is no actual yield, then the normal yield for the farm shall be appraised in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, taking into consideration abnormal weather conditions, the normal yield for the county, changes in production practices, and the yield in years for which data are available.
(J) “Projected county yield” for any crop of wheat shall be determined on the basis of the yield per harvested acre of such commodity in the county during each of the five calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such projected county yield is determined, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions affecting such yield, for trends in yields and for any significant changes in production practices.
(K) “Projected farm yield” for any crop of wheat shall be determined on the basis of the yield per harvested acre of such commodity on the farm during each of the three calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such projected farm yield is determined, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions affecting such yield, for trends in yields and for any significant changes in production practices, but in no event shall such projected farm yield be less than the normal yield for such farm as provided in subparagraph (E) of this paragraph.
(L) “Projected national, State, and county yields” for any crop of cotton shall be determined on the basis of the yield per harvested acre of such crop in the United States, the State and the county, respectively, during each of the five calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such projected yield for the United States, the State, and the county, respectively, is determined, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions affecting such yield, for trends in yields, and for any significant changes in production practices.
(M) “Projected farm yield” for any crop of cotton shall be determined on the basis of the yield per harvested acre of such crop on the farm during each of the three calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such projected farm yield is determined, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions affecting such yield, for trends in yields, and for any significant changes in production practices, but in no event shall such projected farm yield be less than the normal yield for such farm as provided in subparagraph (I) of this paragraph.
(14) “Reserve supply level”, in the case of corn, shall be a normal year’s domestic consumption and exports of corn plus 10 per centum of a normal year’s domestic consumption and exports, to insure a supply adequate to meet domestic consumption and export needs in years of drought, flood, or other adverse conditions, as well as in years of plenty.
(15)
(A) “Total supply” of wheat, corn, rice, and peanuts for any marketing year shall be the carry-over of the commodity for such marketing year, plus the estimated production of the commodity in the United States during the calendar year in which such marketing year begins and the estimated imports of the commodity into the United States during such marketing year.
(B) “Total supply” of cotton for any marketing year shall be the carry-over at the beginning of such marketing year, plus the estimated production of cotton in the United States during the calendar year in which such marketing year begins and the estimated imports of cotton into the United States during such marketing year.
(c) Use of Federal statistics
The latest available statistics of the Federal Government shall be used by the Secretary in making the determinations required to be made by the Secretary under this chapter.
(d) Exclusion of stocks of certain commodities
In making any determination under this chapter or under the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.] with respect to the carryover of any agricultural commodity, the Secretary shall exclude from such determination the stocks of any commodity acquired pursuant to, or under the authority of, the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (60 Stat. 596) [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.].
 
§ 1301a. References to parity prices, etc., in other laws after January 1, 1950
All references in other laws to—
(1) parity,
(2) parity prices,
(3) prices comparable to parity prices, or
(4) prices to be determined in the same manner as provided by this chapter prior to January 1, 1950 for the determination of parity prices,
 
with respect to prices for agricultural commodities and products thereof, shall after January 1, 1950 be deemed to refer to parity prices as determined in accordance with the provisions of section 1301 (a)(1) of this title.
 
§ 1301b. Repealed.]
Section, act Aug. 29, 1949, ch. 518, § 3(a), 63 Stat. 676, prescribed standard cotton grade for parity and price support purposes.
 
§ 1302. Repealed.]
Section, acts Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, § 302, 52 Stat. 43; June 21, 1938, ch. 554, title V, § 502, 52 Stat. 820; July 3, 1948, ch. 827, title II, § 202(a), 62 Stat. 1252, related to price support of agricultural commodities.
 
§ 1303. Parity payments
If and when appropriations are made therefor, the Secretary is authorized and directed to make payments to producers of corn, wheat, cotton, or rice, on their normal production of such commodities in amounts which, together with the proceeds thereof, will provide a return to such producers which is as nearly equal to parity price as the funds so made available will permit. All funds available for such payments with respect to these commodities shall unless otherwise provided by law, be apportioned to these commodities in proportion to the amount by which each fails to reach the parity income. Such payments shall be in addition to and not in substitution for any other payments authorized by law.
 
§ 1304. Consumer safeguards
The powers conferred under this chapter shall not be used to discourage the production of supplies of foods and fibers sufficient to maintain normal domestic human consumption as determined by the Secretary from the records of domestic human consumption in the years 1920 to 1929, inclusive, taking into consideration increased population quantities of any commodity that were forced into domestic consumption by decline in exports during such period, current trends in domestic consumption and exports of particular commodities, and the quantities of substitutes available for domestic consumption within any general class of food commodities. In carrying out the purposes of this chapter it shall be the duty of the Secretary to give due regard to the maintenance of a continuous and stable supply of agricultural commodities from domestic production adequate to meet consumer demand at prices fair to both producers and consumers.
 
§ 1305. Transfer of acreage allotments or feed grain bases on public lands upon request of State agencies
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary, upon the request of any agency of any State charged with the administration of the public lands of the State, may permit the transfer of acreage allotments or feed grain bases together with relevant production histories which have been determined pursuant to this chapter, or section 590p of title 16, from any farm composed of public lands to any other farm or farms in the same county composed of public lands: Provided, That as a condition for the transfer of any allotment or base an acreage equal to or greater than the allotment or base transferred prior to adjustment, if any, shall be devoted to and maintained in permanent vegetative cover on the farm from which the transfer is made. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations which he deems necessary for the administration of this section, which may provide for adjusting downward the size of the allotment or base transferred if the farm to which the allotment or base is transferred normally has a higher yield per acre for the commodity for which the allotment or base is determined, for reasonable limitations on the size of the resulting allotments and bases on farms to which transfers are made, taking into account the size of the allotments and bases on farms of similar size in the community, and for retransferring allotments or bases and relevant histories if the conditions of the transfers are not fulfilled.
 
§ 1306. Projected yields; determination; base period
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the determination of farm yields the Secretary may use projected yields in lieu of normal yields. In the determination of such yields the Secretary shall take into account the actual yield proved by the producer for the base period used in determining the projected yield, and the projected yield shall not be less than such actual yield proved by the producer.
 
§ 1307. Limitation on payments under wheat, feed grains, and cotton programs for 1974 through 1977 crops
Notwithstanding any other provision of law—
(1) The total amount of payments which a person shall be entitled to receive under one or more of the annual programs established by titles IV, V, and VI of this Act for the 1974 through 1976 crops of the commodities and by titles IV and V of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 and titles IV, V, and VI of this Act for the 1977 crop of the commodities shall not exceed $20,000.
(2) The term “payments” as used in this section shall not include loans or purchases, or any part of any payment which is determined by the Secretary to represent compensation for resource adjustment or public access for recreation.
(3) If the Secretary determines that the total amount of payments which will be earned by any person under the program in effect for any crop will be reduced under this section, the set-aside acreage for the farm or farms on which such person will be sharing in payments earned under such program shall be reduced to such extent and in such manner as the Secretary determines will be fair and reasonable in relation to the amount of the payment reduction.
(4) The Secretary shall issue regulations defining the term “person” and prescribing such rules as he determines necessary to assure a fair and reasonable application of such limitation: Provided, That the provisions of this Act which limit payments to any person shall not be applicable to lands owned by States, political subdivisions, or agencies thereof, so long as such lands are farmed primarily in the direct furtherance of a public function, as determined by the Secretary. The rules for determining whether corporations and their stockholders may be considered as separate persons shall be in accordance with the regulations issued by the Secretary on December 18, 1970.
 
§ 1308. Payment limitations
(a) Definitions
In this section through section 1308–5 of this title:
(1) Covered commodity
The term “covered commodity” has the meaning given that term in section 1001 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 8702].
(2) Family member
The term “family member” means a person to whom a member in the farming operation is related as lineal ancestor, lineal descendant, sibling, spouse, or otherwise by marriage.
(3) Legal entity
The term “legal entity” means an entity that is created under Federal or State law and that—
(A) owns land or an agricultural commodity; or
(B) produces an agricultural commodity.
(4) Person
The term “person” means a natural person, and does not include a legal entity.
(5) Secretary
The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture.
(b) Limitation on direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, and ACRE payments for covered commodities (other than peanuts)
(1) Direct payments
The total amount of direct payments received, directly or indirectly, by a person or legal entity (except a joint venture or a general partnership) for any crop year under subtitle A of title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7U.S.C. 8711 et seq.] for 1 or more covered commodities (except for peanuts) may not exceed—
(A) in the case of a person or legal entity that does not participate in the average crop revenue election program under section 1105 of that Act [7U.S.C. 8715], $40,000; or
(B) in the case of a person or legal entity that participates in the average crop revenue election program under section 1105 of that Act, an amount equal to—
(i) the payment limit specified in subparagraph (A); less
(ii) the amount of the reduction in direct payments under section 1105(a)(1) of that Act.
(2) Counter-cyclical payments
In the case of a person or legal entity (except a joint venture or a general partnership) that does not participate in the average crop revenue election program under section 1105 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, the total amount of counter-cyclical payments received, directly or indirectly, by the person or legal entity for any crop year under subtitle A of title I of that Act [7U.S.C. 8711 et seq.] for 1 or more covered commodities (except for peanuts) may not exceed $65,000.
(3) ACRE and counter-cyclical payments
In the case of a person or legal entity (except a joint venture or a general partnership) that participates in the average crop revenue election program under section 1105 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, the total amount of average crop revenue election payments and counter-cyclical payments received, directly or indirectly, by the person or legal entity for any crop year for 1 or more covered commodities (except for peanuts) may not exceed the sum of—
(A) $65,000; and
(B) the amount by which the direct payment limitation is reduced under paragraph (1)(B).
(c) Limitation on direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, and ACRE payments for peanuts
(1) Direct payments
The total amount of direct payments received, directly or indirectly, by a person or legal entity (except a joint venture or a general partnership) for any crop year under subtitle C of title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7U.S.C. 8751 et seq.] for peanuts may not exceed—
(A) in the case of a person or legal entity that does not participate in the average crop revenue election program under section 1105 of that Act [7U.S.C. 8715], $40,000; or
(B) in the case of a person or legal entity that participates in the average crop revenue election program under section 1105 of that Act, an amount equal to—
(i) the payment limit specified in subparagraph (A); less
(ii) the amount of the reduction in direct payments under section 1105(a)(1) of that Act.
(2) Counter-cyclical payments
In the case of a person or legal entity (except a joint venture or a general partnership) that does not participate in the average crop revenue election program under section 1105 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, the total amount of counter-cyclical payments received, directly or indirectly, by the person or legal entity for any crop year under subtitle C of title I of that Act [7U.S.C. 8751 et seq.] for peanuts may not exceed $65,000.
(3) ACRE and counter-cyclical payments
In the case of a person or legal entity (except a joint venture or a general partnership) that participates in the average crop revenue election program under section 1105 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, the total amount of average crop revenue election payments received, directly or indirectly, by the person or legal entity for any crop year for peanuts may not exceed the sum of—
(A) $65,000; and
(B) the amount by which the direct payment limitation is reduced under paragraph (1)(B).
(d) Limitation on applicability
Nothing in this section authorizes any limitation on any benefit associated with the marketing assistance loan program or the loan deficiency payment program under title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 8701 et seq.].
(e) Attribution of payments
(1) In general
In implementing subsections (b) and (c) and a program described in paragraphs (1)(C) and (2)(B) of section 1308–3a (b) of this title, the Secretary shall issue such regulations as are necessary to ensure that the total amount of payments are attributed to a person by taking into account the direct and indirect ownership interests of the person in a legal entity that is eligible to receive the payments.
(2) Payments to a person
Each payment made directly to a person shall be combined with the pro rata interest of the person in payments received by a legal entity in which the person has a direct or indirect ownership interest unless the payments of the legal entity have been reduced by the pro rata share of the person.
(3) Payments to a legal entity
(A) In general
Each payment made to a legal entity shall be attributed to those persons who have a direct or indirect ownership interest in the legal entity unless the payment to the legal entity has been reduced by the pro rata share of the person.
(B) Attribution of payments
(i) Payment limits Except as provided in clause (ii), payments made to a legal entity shall not exceed the amounts specified in subsections (b) and (c).
(ii) Exception for joint ventures and general partnerships Payments made to a joint venture or a general partnership shall not exceed, for each payment specified in subsections (b) and (c), the amount determined by multiplying the maximum payment amount specified in subsections (b) and (c) by the number of persons and legal entities (other than joint ventures and general partnerships) that comprise the ownership of the joint venture or general partnership.
(iii) Reduction Payments made to a legal entity shall be reduced proportionately by an amount that represents the direct or indirect ownership in the legal entity by any person or legal entity that has otherwise exceeded the applicable maximum payment limitation.
(4) 4 levels of attribution for embedded legal entities
(A) In general
Attribution of payments made to legal entities shall be traced through 4 levels of ownership in legal entities.
(B) First level
Any payments made to a legal entity (a first-tier legal entity) that is owned in whole or in part by a person shall be attributed to the person in an amount that represents the direct ownership in the first-tier legal entity by the person.
(C) Second level
(i) In general Any payments made to a first-tier legal entity that is owned (in whole or in part) by another legal entity (a second-tier legal entity) shall be attributed to the second-tier legal entity in proportion to the ownership of the second-tier legal entity in the first-tier legal entity.
(ii) Ownership by a person If the second-tier legal entity is owned (in whole or in part) by a person, the amount of the payment made to the first-tier legal entity shall be attributed to the person in the amount that represents the indirect ownership in the first-tier legal entity by the person.
(D) Third and fourth levels
(i) In general Except as provided in clause (ii), the Secretary shall attribute payments at the third and fourth tiers of ownership in the same manner as specified in subparagraph (C).
(ii) Fourth-tier ownership If the fourth-tier of ownership is that of a fourth-tier legal entity and not that of a person, the Secretary shall reduce the amount of the payment to be made to the first-tier legal entity in the amount that represents the indirect ownership in the first-tier legal entity by the fourth-tier legal entity.
(f) Special rules
(1) Minor children
(A) In general
Except as provided in subparagraph (B), payments received by a child under the age of 18 shall be attributed to the parents of the child.
(B) Regulations
The Secretary shall issue regulations specifying the conditions under which payments received by a child under the age of 18 will not be attributed to the parents of the child.
(2) Marketing cooperatives
Subsections (b) and (c) shall not apply to a cooperative association of producers with respect to commodities produced by the members of the association that are marketed by the association on behalf of the members of the association but shall apply to the producers as persons.
(3) Trusts and estates
(A) In general
With respect to irrevocable trusts and estates, the Secretary shall administer this section through section 1308–5 of this title in such manner as the Secretary determines will ensure the fair and equitable treatment of the beneficiaries of the trusts and estates.
(B) Irrevocable trust
(i) In general In order for a trust to be considered an irrevocable trust, the terms of the trust agreement shall not—
(I) allow for modification or termination of the trust by the grantor;
(II) allow for the grantor to have any future, contingent, or remainder interest in the corpus of the trust; or
(III) except as provided in clause (ii), provide for the transfer of the corpus of the trust to the remainder beneficiary in less than 20 years beginning on the date the trust is established.
(ii) Exception Clause (i)(III) shall not apply in a case in which the transfer is—
(I) contingent on the remainder beneficiary achieving at least the age of majority; or
(II) contingent on the death of the grantor or income beneficiary.
(C) Revocable trust
For the purposes of this section through section 1308–5 of this title, a revocable trust shall be considered to be the same person as the grantor of the trust.
(4) Cash rent tenants
(A) Definition
In this paragraph, the term “cash rent tenant” means a person or legal entity that rents land—
(i) for cash; or
(ii) for a crop share guaranteed as to the amount of the commodity to be paid in rent.
(B) Restriction
A cash rent tenant who makes a significant contribution of active personal management, but not of personal labor, with respect to a farming operation shall be eligible to receive a payment described in subsection (b) or (c) only if the tenant makes a significant contribution of equipment to the farming operation.
(5) Federal agencies
(A) In general
Notwithstanding subsection (d), a Federal agency shall not be eligible to receive any payment, benefit, or loan under title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 8701 et seq.] or title XII of this Act [16U.S.C. 3801 et seq.].
(B) Land rental
A lessee of land owned by a Federal agency may receive a payment described in subsection (b), (c), or (d) if the lessee otherwise meets all applicable criteria.
(6) State and local governments
(A) In general
Notwithstanding subsection (d), except as provided in subsection (g), a State or local government, or political subdivision or agency of the government, shall not be eligible to receive any payment, benefit, or loan under title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C.8701 et seq.] or title XII of this Act [16 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.].
(B) Tenants
A lessee of land owned by a State or local government, or political subdivision or agency of the government, may receive payments described in subsections (b), (c), and (d) if the lessee otherwise meets all applicable criteria.
(7) Changes in farming operations
(A) In general
In the administration of this section through section 1308–5 of this title, the Secretary may not approve any change in a farming operation that otherwise will increase the number of persons to which the limitations under this section are applied unless the Secretary determines that the change is bona fide and substantive.
(B) Family members
The addition of a family member to a farming operation under the criteria set out in section 1308–1 of this title shall be considered a bona fide and substantive change in the farming operation.
(8) Death of owner
(A) In general
If any ownership interest in land or a commodity is transferred as the result of the death of a program participant, the new owner of the land or commodity may, if the person is otherwise eligible to participate in the applicable program, succeed to the contract of the prior owner and receive payments subject to this section without regard to the amount of payments received by the new owner.
(B) Limitations on prior owner
Payments made under this paragraph shall not exceed the amount to which the previous owner was entitled to receive under the terms of the contract at the time of the death of the prior owner.
(g) Public schools
(1) In general
Notwithstanding subsection (f)(6)(A), a State or local government, or political subdivision or agency of the government, shall be eligible, subject to the limitation in paragraph (2), to receive a payment described in subsection (b) or (c) for land owned by the State or local government, or political subdivision or agency of the government, that is used to maintain a public school.
(2) Limitation
(A) In general
For each State, the total amount of payments described in subsections (b) and (c) that are received collectively by the State and local government and all political subdivisions or agencies of those governments shall not exceed $500,000.
(B) Exception
The limitation in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to States with a population of less than 1,500,000.
(h) Time limits; reliance
Regulations of the Secretary shall establish time limits for the various steps involved with notice, hearing, decision, and the appeals procedure in order to ensure expeditious handling and settlement of payment limitation disputes. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, actions taken by an individual or other entity in good faith on action or advice of an authorized representative of the Secretary may be accepted as meeting the requirement under this section or section 1308–1 of this title, to the extent the Secretary deems it desirable in order to provide fair and equitable treatment.
 
§ 1308-1. Notification of interests; payments limited to active farmers
(a) Notification of interests
To facilitate administration of section 1308 of this title and this section, each person or legal entity receiving payments described in subsections (b) and (c) of section 1308of this title as a separate person or legal entity shall separately provide to the Secretary, at such times and in such manner as prescribed by the Secretary—
(1) the name and social security number of each person, or the name and taxpayer identification number of each legal entity, that holds or acquires an ownership interest in the separate person or legal entity; and
(2) the name and taxpayer identification number of each legal entity in which the person or legal entity holds an ownership interest.
(b) Actively engaged
(1) In general
To be eligible to receive a payment described in subsection (b) or (c) of section1308 of this title, a person or legal entity shall be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation as provided in this subsection or subsection (c).
(2) Classes actively engaged
Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d)—
(A) a person (including a person participating in a farming operation as a partner in a general partnership, a participant in a joint venture, a grantor of a revocable trust, or a participant in a similar entity, as determined by the Secretary) shall be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if—
(i) the person makes a significant contribution (based on the total value of the farming operation) to the farming operation of—
(I) capital, equipment, or land; and
(II) personal labor or active personal management;
 
(ii) the person’s share of the profits or losses from the farming operation is commensurate with the contributions of the person to the farming operation; and
(iii) the contributions of the person are at risk;
 
(B) a legal entity that is a corporation, joint stock company, association, limited partnership, charitable organization, or other similar entity determined by the Secretary (including any such legal entity participating in the farming operation as a partner in a general partnership, a participant in a joint venture, a grantor of a revocable trust, or as a participant in a similar legal entity as determined by the Secretary) shall be considered as actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation if—
(i) the legal entity separately makes a significant contribution (based on the total value of the farming operation) of capital, equipment, or land;
(ii) the stockholders or members collectively make a significant contribution of personal labor or active personal management to the operation; and
(iii) the standards provided in clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A), as applied to the legal entity, are met by the legal entity;
 
(C) if a legal entity that is a general partnership, joint venture, or similar entity, as determined by the Secretary, separately makes a significant contribution (based on the total value of the farming operation involved) of capital, equipment, or land, and the standards provided in clauses (ii) and (iii) of subparagraph (A), as applied to the legal entity, are met by the legal entity, the partners or members making a significant contribution of personal labor or active personal management shall be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to the farming operation involved; and
(D) in making determinations under this subsection regarding equipment and personal labor, the Secretary shall take into consideration the equipment and personal labor normally and customarily provided by farm operators in the area involved to produce program crops.
(c) Special classes actively engaged
(1) Landowner
A person or legal entity that is a landowner contributing the owned land to a farming operation shall be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to the farming operation if—
(A) the landowner receives rent or income for the use of the land based on the production on the land or the operating results of the operation; and
(B) the person or legal entity meets the standards provided in clauses (ii) and (iii) of subsection (b)(2)(A).
(2) Adult family member
If a majority of the participants in a farming operation are family members, an adult family member shall be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to the farming operation if the person—
(A) makes a significant contribution, based on the total value of the farming operation, of active personal management or personal labor; and
(B) with respect to such contribution, meets the standards provided in clauses (ii) and (iii) of subsection (b)(2)(A).
(3) Sharecropper
A sharecropper who makes a significant contribution of personal labor to a farming operation shall be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to the farming operation if the contribution meets the standards provided in clauses (ii) and (iii) of subsection (b)(2)(A).
(4) Growers of hybrid seed
In determining whether a person or legal entity growing hybrid seed under contract shall be considered to be actively engaged in farming, the Secretary shall not take into consideration the existence of a hybrid seed contract.
(5) Custom farming services
(A) In general
A person or legal entity receiving custom farming services shall be considered separately eligible for payment limitation purposes if the person or legal entity is actively engaged in farming based on subsection (b)(2) or paragraphs (1) through (4) of this subsection.
(B) Prohibition
No other rules with respect to custom farming shall apply.
(6) Spouse
If 1 spouse (or estate of a deceased spouse) is determined to be actively engaged, the other spouse shall be determined to have met the requirements of subsection (b)(2)(A)(i)(II).
(d) Classes not actively engaged
(1) Cash rent landlord
A landlord contributing land to a farming operation shall not be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to the farming operation if the landlord receives cash rent, or a crop share guaranteed as to the amount of the commodity to be paid in rent, for the use of the land.
(2) Other persons and legal entities
Any other person or legal entity that the Secretary determines does not meet the standards described in subsections (b)(2) and (c) shall not be considered to be actively engaged in farming with respect to a farming operation.
 
§ 1308-2. Denial of program benefits
(a) 2-year denial of program benefits
A person or legal entity shall be ineligible to receive payments specified in subsections (b) and (c) of section 1308 of this title for the crop year, and the succeeding crop year, in which the Secretary determines that the person or legal entity—
(1) failed to comply with section 1308–1 (b) of this title and adopted or participated in adopting a scheme or device to evade the application of section13081308–1, or 1308–3 of this title; or
(2) intentionally concealed the interest of the person or legal entity in any farm or legal entity engaged in farming.
(b) Extended ineligibility
If the Secretary determines that a person or legal entity, for the benefit of the person or legal entity or the benefit of any other person or legal entity, has knowingly engaged in, or aided in the creation of a fraudulent document, failed to disclose material information relevant to the administration of sections 1308 through 1308–5of this title, or committed other equally serious actions (as identified in regulations issued by the Secretary), the Secretary may for a period not to exceed 5 crop years deny the issuance of payments to the person or legal entity.
(c) Pro rata denial
(1) In general
Payments otherwise owed to a person or legal entity described in subsections (a) or (b) shall be denied in a pro rata manner based on the ownership interest of the person or legal entity in a farm.
(2) Cash rent tenant
Payments otherwise payable to a person or legal entity shall be denied in a pro rata manner if the person or legal entity is a cash rent tenant on a farm owned or under the control of a person or legal entity with respect to which a determination has been made under subsection (a) or (b).
(d) Joint and several liability
Any legal entity (including partnerships and joint ventures) and any member of any legal entity determined to have knowingly participated in a scheme or device to evade, or that has the purpose of evading, sections 13081308–1, or 1308–3 of this title shall be jointly and severally liable for any amounts that are payable to the Secretary as the result of the scheme or device (including amounts necessary to recover those amounts).
(e) Release
The Secretary may partially or fully release from liability any person or legal entity who cooperates with the Secretary in enforcing sections 13081308–1, and 1308–3of this title, and this section.
 
§ 1308-3. Foreign persons made ineligible for program benefits
Notwithstanding any other provision of law:
(a) In general
Any person who is not a citizen of the United States or an alien lawfully admitted into the United States for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.) shall be ineligible to receive any type of loans or payments made available under title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7U.S.C. 8701 et seq.], the Agricultural Market Transition Act [7 U.S.C. 7201 et seq.], the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act (15 U.S.C. 714 et seq.), or subtitle D of title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (16 U.S.C. 3831 et seq.),[1] or under any contract entered into under title XII [16 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.], with respect to any commodity produced, or land set aside from production, on a farm that is owned or operated by such person, unless such person is an individual who is providing land, capital, and a substantial amount of personal labor in the production of crops on such farm.
(b) Corporations or other entities
For purposes of subsection (a) of this section, a corporation or other entity shall be considered a person that is ineligible for production adjustment payments, price support program loans, payments, or benefits if more than 10 percent of the beneficial ownership of the entity is held by persons who are not citizens of the United States or aliens lawfully admitted into the United States for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], unless such persons provide a substantial amount of personal labor in the production of crops on such farm. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subsection, with respect to an entity that is determined to be ineligible to receive such payments, loans, or other benefits, the Secretary may make payments, loans, and other benefits in an amount determined by the Secretary to be representative of the percentage interests of the entity that is owned by citizens of the United States and aliens lawfully admitted into the United States for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act.
(c) Prospective application
No person shall become ineligible under this section for production adjustment payments, price support program loans, payments or benefits as the result of the production of a crop of an agricultural commodity planted, or commodity program or conservation reserve contract entered into, before December 22, 1987.
 
§ 1308-3a. Adjusted gross income limitation
(a) Definitions
(1) In general
In this section:
(A) Average adjusted gross income
The term “average adjusted gross income”, with respect to a person or legal entity, means the average of the adjusted gross income or comparable measure of the person or legal entity over the 3 taxable years preceding the most immediately preceding complete taxable year, as determined by the Secretary.
(B) Average adjusted gross farm income
The term “average adjusted gross farm income”, with respect to a person or legal entity, means the average of the portion of adjusted gross income of the person or legal entity that is attributable to activities related to farming, ranching, or forestry for the 3 taxable years described in subparagraph (A), as determined by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (c).
(C) Average adjusted gross nonfarm income
The term “average adjusted gross nonfarm income”, with respect to a person or legal entity, means the difference between—
(i) the average adjusted gross income of the person or legal entity; and
(ii) the average adjusted gross farm income of the person or legal entity.
(2) Special rules for certain persons and legal entities
In the case of a legal entity that is not required to file a Federal income tax return or a person or legal entity that did not have taxable income in 1 or more of the taxable years used to determine the average under subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide, by regulation, a method for determining the average adjusted gross income, the average adjusted gross farm income, and the average adjusted gross nonfarm income of the person or legal entity for purposes of this section.
(3) Allocation of income
On the request of any person filing a joint tax return, the Secretary shall provide for the allocation of average adjusted gross income, average adjusted gross farm income, and average adjusted gross nonfarm income among the persons filing the return if—
(A) the person provides a certified statement by a certified public accountant or attorney that specifies the method by which the average adjusted gross income, average adjusted gross farm income, and average adjusted gross nonfarm income would have been declared and reported had the persons filed 2 separate returns; and
(B) the Secretary determines that the method described in the statement is consistent with the information supporting the filed joint tax return.
(b) Limitations
(1) Commodity programs
(A) Nonfarm limitation
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a person or legal entity shall not be eligible to receive any benefit described in subparagraph (C) during a crop, fiscal, or program year, as appropriate, if the average adjusted gross nonfarm income of the person or legal entity exceeds $500,000.
(B) Farm limitation
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a person or legal entity shall not be eligible to receive a direct payment under subtitle A or C of title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 8711 et seq.,8751 et seq.] during a crop year, if the average adjusted gross farm income of the person or legal entity exceeds $750,000.
(C) Covered benefits
Subparagraph (A) applies with respect to the following:
(i) A direct payment or counter-cyclical payment under subtitle A or C of title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 8711 et seq., 8751 et seq.] or an average crop revenue election payment under subtitle A of title I of that Act [7 U.S.C. 8711 et seq.].
(ii) A marketing loan gain or loan deficiency payment under subtitle B or C of title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C.8731 et seq., 8751 et seq.].
(iii) A payment or benefit under section 196 of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7333).
(iv) A payment or benefit under section 1506 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 8773].
(v) A payment or benefit under title IX of the Trade Act of 1974 [19U.S.C. 2497 et seq.] or subtitle B of the Federal Crop Insurance Act [7U.S.C. 1531].
(2) Conservation programs
(A) Limits
(i) In general Notwithstanding any other provision of law, except as provided in clause (ii), a person or legal entity shall not be eligible to receive any benefit described in subparagraph (B) during a crop, fiscal, or program year, as appropriate, if the average adjusted gross nonfarm income of the person or legal entity exceeds $1,000,000, unless not less than 66.66 percent of the average adjusted gross income of the person or legal entity is average adjusted gross farm income.
(ii) Exception The Secretary may waive the limitation established under clause (i) on a case-by-case basis if the Secretary determines that environmentally sensitive land of special significance would be protected.
(B) Covered benefits
Subparagraph (A) applies with respect to the following:
(i) A payment or benefit under title XII of this Act [16 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.].
(ii) A payment or benefit under title II of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Public Law 107–171; 116 Stat. 223) or title II of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008.
(iii) A payment or benefit under section 524(b) of the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1524 (b)).
(c) Income determination
(1) In general
In determining the average adjusted gross farm income of a person or legal entity, the Secretary shall include income or benefits derived from or related to—
(A) the production of crops, including specialty crops (as defined in section 3 of the Specialty Crops Competitiveness Act of 2004 (7 U.S.C. 1621 note ; Public Law 108–465)) and unfinished raw forestry products;
(B) the production of livestock (including cattle, elk, reindeer, bison, horses, deer, sheep, goats, swine, poultry, fish, and other aquacultural products used for food, honeybees, and other animals designated by the Secretary) and products produced by, or derived from, livestock;
(C) the production of farm-based renewable energy (as defined in section 9001 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (7 U.S.C. 8101));
(D) the sale, including the sale of easements and development rights, of farm, ranch, or forestry land, water or hunting rights, or environmental benefits;
(E) the rental or lease of land or equipment used for farming, ranching, or forestry operations, including water or hunting rights;
(F) the processing (including packing), storing (including shedding), and transporting of farm, ranch, and forestry commodities, including renewable energy;
(G) the feeding, rearing, or finishing of livestock;
(H) the sale of land that has been used for agriculture;
(I) payments or other benefits received under any program authorized under title I of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (7 U.S.C. 7901 et seq.) or title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C.8701 et seq.];
(J) payments or other benefits received under any program authorized under title XII of this Act [16 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.], title II of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Public Law 107–171; 116 Stat. 223), or title II of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008;
(K) payments or other benefits received under section 196 of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7333);
(L) payments or other benefits received under title IX of the Trade Act of 1974 [19 U.S.C. 2497 et seq.] or subtitle B of the Federal Crop Insurance Act [7 U.S.C. 1531];
(M) risk management practices, including benefits received under a program authorized under the Federal Crop Insurance Act (7 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.) (including a catastrophic risk protection plan offered under section 508(b) of that Act (7 U.S.C. 1508 (b))); and
(N) any other activity related to farming, ranching, or forestry, as determined by the Secretary.
(2) Income derived from farming, ranching, or forestry
In determining the average adjusted gross farm income of a person or legal entity, in addition to the inclusions described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall include any income reported on the Schedule F or other schedule used by the person or legal entity to report income from farming, ranching, or forestry operations to the Internal Revenue Service, to the extent such income is not already included under paragraph (1).
(3) Special rule
If not less than 66.66 percent of the average adjusted gross income of a person or legal entity is derived from farming, ranching, or forestry operations described in paragraphs (1) and (2), in determining the average adjusted gross farm income of the person or legal entity, the Secretary shall also include—
(A) the sale of equipment to conduct farm, ranch, or forestry operations; and
(B) the provision of production inputs and services to farmers, ranchers, foresters, and farm operations.
(d) Enforcement
(1) In general
To comply with subsection (b), at least once every 3 years a person or legal entity shall provide to the Secretary—
(A) a certification by a certified public accountant or another third party that is acceptable to the Secretary that the average adjusted gross income, average adjusted gross farm income, and average adjusted gross nonfarm income of the person or legal entity does not exceed the applicable limitation specified in that subsection; or
(B) information and documentation regarding the average adjusted gross income, average adjusted gross farm income, and average adjusted gross nonfarm income of the person or legal entity through other procedures established by the Secretary.
(2) Denial of program benefits
If the Secretary determines that a person or legal entity has failed to comply with this section, the Secretary shall deny the issuance of applicable payments and benefits specified in paragraphs (1)(C) and (2)(B) of subsection (b) to the person or legal entity, under similar terms and conditions as described in section 1308–2 of this title.
(3) Audit
The Secretary shall establish statistically valid procedures under which the Secretary shall conduct targeted audits of such persons or legal entities as the Secretary determines are most likely to exceed the limitations under subsection (b).
(e) Commensurate reduction
In the case of a payment or benefit described in paragraphs (1)(C) and (2)(B) of subsection (b) made in a crop, program, or fiscal year, as appropriate, to an entity, general partnership, or joint venture, the amount of the payment or benefit shall be reduced by an amount that is commensurate with the direct and indirect ownership interest in the entity, general partnership, or joint venture of each person who has an average adjusted gross income, average adjusted gross farm income, or average adjusted gross nonfarm income in excess of the applicable limitation specified in subsection (b).
(f) Effective period
This section shall apply only during the 2009 through 2012 crop, program, or fiscal years, as appropriate.
 
§ 1308-4. Education program
(a) In general
The Secretary shall carry out a payment provisions education program for appropriate personnel of the Department of Agriculture and members and other personnel of county and State committees established under section 590h (b) of title 16, for the purpose of fostering more effective and uniform application of the payment limitations and restrictions established under sections 1308 through 1308–3 of this title.
(b) Training
The education program shall provide training to the personnel in the fair, accurate, and uniform application to individual farming operations of the provisions of law and regulation relating to the payment provisions of sections 1308 through 1308–3 of this title.
(c) Administration
The State office of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service shall make the initial determination concerning the application of payment limitations and restrictions established under sections 1308 through 1308–3 of this title to farm operations consisting of more than 5 persons, subject to review by the Secretary.
(d) Commodity Credit Corporation
The Secretary shall carry out the program provided under this section through the Commodity Credit Corporation.
 
§ 1308-5. Treatment of multiyear program contract payments
(a) In general
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the event of a transfer of ownership of land (or an ownership interest in land) by way of devise or descent, the Secretary of Agriculture may, if the new owner succeeds to the prior owner’s contract entered into under title XII,[1] make payments to the new owner under such contract without regard to the amount of payments received by the new owner under any contract entered into under title XII [1] executed prior to such devise or descent.
(b) Limitation
Payments made pursuant to this section shall not exceed the amount to which the previous owner was entitled to receive under the terms of the contract at the time of the death of the prior owner.
 
§ 1308a. Cost reduction options
(a) Authority of Secretary to take action
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever the Secretary of Agriculture determines that an action authorized under subsection (c), (d), or (e) of this section will reduce the total of the direct and indirect costs to the Federal Government of a commodity program administered by the Secretary without adversely affecting income to small- and medium-sized producers participating in such program, the Secretary shall take such action with respect to the commodity program involved.
(b) Reservation of Secretary’s right to reopen or change contracts if producer agrees
In the announcement of the specific provisions of any commodity program administered by the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary shall include a statement setting forth which, if any, of the actions are to be initially included in the program, and a statement that the Secretary reserves the right to initiate at a later date any action not previously included but authorized by this section, including the right to reopen and change a contract entered into by a producer under the program if the producer voluntarily agrees to the change.
(c) Purchase from other sources of commodities covered by nonrecourse loans
When a nonrecourse loan program is in effect for a crop of a commodity, the Secretary may enter the commercial market to purchase such commodity if the Secretary determines that the cost of such purchases plus appropriate carrying charges will probably be less than the comparable cost of later acquiring the commodity through defaults on nonrecourse loans under the program.
(d) Reduction in settlement price of nonrecourse loans
When the domestic market price of a commodity for which a nonrecourse loan program (including the program authorized by section 1445e of this title) is in effect is insufficient to cover the principal and accumulated interest on a loan made under such program, thereby encouraging default by a producer, the Secretary may provide for settlement of such loan and redemption by the producer of the commodity securing such loan for less than the total of the principal and all interest accumulated thereon if the Secretary determines that such reduction in the settlement price will yield benefits to the Federal Government due to—
(1) receipt by the Federal Government of a portion rather than none of the accumulated interest;
(2) avoidance of default; or
(3) elimination of storage, handling, and carrying charges on the forfeited commodity.
(e) Reopening of production control or loan programs to allow for payment in kind
When a production control or loan program is in effect for a crop of a major agricultural commodity, the Secretary may at any time prior to harvest reopen the program to participating producers for the purpose of accepting bids from producers for the conversion of acreage planted to such crop to diverted acres in return for payment in kind from Commodity Credit Corporation surplus stocks of the commodity to which the acreage was planted, if the Secretary determines that
(1) changes in domestic or world supply or demand conditions have substantially changed after announcement of the program for that crop, and
(2) without action to further adjust production, the Federal Government and producers will be faced with a burdensome and costly surplus. Such payments in kind shall not be included within the payment limitation per person established under section 1308 of this title, but shall be limited to a total $20,000 per year per producer for any one commodity.
(f) Other authorities of Secretary not affected
The authority provided in this section shall be in addition to, and not in place of, any authority granted to the Secretary under any other provision of law.
 
§ 1309. Normally planted acreage and target prices
(a) Authorized planted acreage for 1982 through 1995 crops of wheat and feed grains as prerequisite for loan, etc.; eligibility; determinations; records
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever a set-aside program is in effect for one or more of the 1982 through 1995 crops of wheat and feed grains, the Secretary of Agriculture may require, as a condition of eligibility for loans, purchases, and payments for such crops under the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.], that producers not exceed the acreage on the farm normally planted to crops designated by the Secretary, adjusted as deemed necessary by the Secretary to be fair and equitable among producers and reduced by any set-aside or diverted acreage. Such normal crop acreage for any crop year shall be determined as provided by the Secretary. The Secretary may require producers participating in the program to keep such records as the Secretary determines necessary to assist in making such determination.
(b) Established price payments
Notwithstanding any other provision of law—
(1) Whenever the Secretary, for one or more of the 1982 through 1995 crops of wheat and feed grains, requires that producers not exceed the acreage on the farm normally planted to crops designated by the Secretary in accordance with subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary may increase the established price payments for any such commodity by such amount (or if there are no such payments in effect for such crop by providing for payments in such amount) as the Secretary determines appropriate to compensate producers for not exceeding the acreage on the farm normally planted to crops designated by the Secretary and participation in any required set-aside with respect to such commodity.
(2) In determining the amount of any payments for any commodity under this subsection, the Secretary shall take into account changes in the costs of production resulting from not exceeding the acreage on the farm normally planted to crops designated by the Secretary and participation in any required set-aside with respect to such commodity.
(3) If payments are provided for any commodity under this subsection, the Secretary may provide for payments for any other commodity in such amount as the Secretary determines necessary for effective operation of the program.
(4) The Secretary shall adjust any payments under this subsection to reflect, in whole or in part, any land diversion payments for the commodity for which an increase is determined.
(c) Marketing quotas in effect for 1987 through 1995 crops of wheat; reduction in normally planted acreage as condition prerequisite for loan, etc.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever marketing quotas are in effect for any of the 1987 through 1995 crops of wheat, the Secretary of Agriculture may require, as a condition of eligibility for loans, purchases, and payments on any commodity under the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.), that the acreage normally planted to crops designated by the Secretary, adjusted as considered necessary by the Secretary to be fair and equitable among producers, shall be reduced by a quantity equal to—
(1) the acreage that the Secretary determines would normally be planted to wheat on a farm; minus
(2) the individual farm program acreage for the farm under section 107B(d)(3)(A) [1] of such Act. 
 
§ 1310. American agriculture protection program
(a) Determination of short supply; suspension of commercial export sales; parity price
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever the President or any other member of the executive branch of the Federal Government causes to be suspended, based upon a determination of short supply, the commercial export sales of any commodity, as defined in subsection (c) of this section, to any country or area with which the United States otherwise continues commercial trade, the Secretary of Agriculture shall, on the day the suspension is initiated, set the loan level for such commodity under the Agricultural Act of 1949, as amended [7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.], if a loan program is in effect for the commodity, at 90 per centum of the parity price for the commodity, as such parity price is determined on the day the suspension is initiated.
(b) Duration of loan level
Any loan level established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall remain in effect as long as the suspension of commercial export sales described in subsection (a) of this section remains in effect.
(c) “Commodity” defined
For purposes of this section, the term “commodity” shall include any of the following: wheat, corn, grain sorghum, soybeans, oats, rye, barley, rice, flaxseed, and cotton.
 
§ 1310a. Normal supply of commodity for 1986 through 1995 crops
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the Secretary of Agriculture determines that the supply of wheat, corn, upland cotton, or rice for the marketing year for any of the 1986 through 1995 crops of such commodity is not likely to be excessive and that program measures to reduce or control the planted acreage of the crop are not necessary, such a decision shall constitute a determination that the total supply of the commodity does not exceed the normal supply and no determination to the contrary shall be made by the Secretary with respect to such commodity for such marketing year.
 
 
Part B—Marketing Quotas (§§ 1311_to_13141—1359ll)
subpart i—marketing quotas—tobacco (§§ 1311_to_13141—1316)
 
subpart ii—acreage allotments—corn (§§ 1321—1330)
§ 1321. Legislative finding of effect on interstate and foreign commerce and necessity of regulation
Corn is a basic source of food for the Nation, and corn produced in the commercial corn-producing area moves almost wholly in interstate and foreign commerce in the form of corn, livestock, and livestock products.
Abnormally excessive and abnormally deficient supplies of corn acutely and directly affect, burden, and obstruct interstate and foreign commerce in corn, livestock, and livestock products. When abnormally excessive supplies exist, transportation facilities in interstate and foreign commerce are overtaxed, and the handling and processing facilities through which the flow of interstate and foreign commerce in corn, livestock, and livestock products is directed become acutely congested. Abnormally deficient supplies result in substantial decreases in livestock production and in an inadequate flow of livestock and livestock products in interstate and foreign commerce, with the consequence of unreasonably high prices to consumers.
Violent fluctuations from year to year in the available supply of corn disrupt the balance between the supply of livestock and livestock products moving in interstate and foreign commerce and the supply of corn available for feeding. When available supplies of corn are excessive, corn prices are low and farmers overexpand livestock production in order to find outlets for corn. Such expansion, together with the relative scarcity and high price of corn, forces farmers to market abnormally excessive supplies of livestock in interstate commerce at sacrifice prices, endangering the financial stability of producers, and overtaxing handling and processing facilities through which the flow of interstate and foreign commerce in livestock and livestock products is directed. Such excessive marketings deplete livestock on farms, and livestock marketed in interstate and foreign commerce consequently becomes abnormally low, with resultant high prices to consumers and danger to the financial stability of persons engaged in transporting, handling, and processing livestock in interstate and foreign commerce. These high prices in turn result in another overexpansion of livestock production.
Recurring violent fluctuations in the price of corn resulting from corresponding violent fluctuations in the supply of corn directly affect the movement of livestock in interstate commerce from the range cattle regions to the regions where livestock is fattened for market in interstate and foreign commerce, and also directly affect the movement in interstate commerce of corn marketed as corn which is transported from the regions where produced to the regions where livestock is fattened for market in interstate and foreign commerce.
Substantially all the corn moving in interstate commerce, substantially all the corn fed to livestock transported in interstate commerce for fattening, and substantially all the corn fed to livestock marketed in interstate and foreign commerce, is produced in the commercial corn-producing area. Substantially all the corn produced in the commercial corn-producing area, with the exception of a comparatively small amount used for farm consumption, is either sold or transported in interstate commerce, or is fed to livestock transported in interstate commerce for feeding, or is fed to livestock marketed in interstate and foreign commerce. Almost all the corn produced outside the commercial corn-producing area is either consumed, or is fed to livestock which is consumed, in the State in which such corn is produced.
The conditions affecting the production and marketing of corn and the livestock products of corn are such that, without Federal assistance, farmers, individually or in cooperation, cannot effectively prevent the recurrence of disparities between the supplies of livestock moving in interstate and foreign commerce and the supply of corn available for feeding, and provide for orderly marketing of corn in interstate and foreign commerce and livestock and livestock products in interstate and foreign commerce.
The national public interest requires that the burdens on interstate and foreign commerce above described be removed by the exercise of Federal power. By reason of the administrative and physical impracticability of regulating the movement of livestock and livestock products in interstate and foreign commerce and the inadequacy of any such regulation to remove such burdens, such power can be feasibly exercised only by providing for the withholding from market of excessive and burdensome supplies of corn in times of excessive production, and providing a reserve supply of corn available for market in times of deficient production, in order that a stable and continuous flow of livestock and livestock products in interstate and foreign commerce may at all times be assured and maintained.
 
§§ 1323 to 1325. Repealed.]
 
§ 1326. Adjustment of farm marketing quotas
(a) Whenever in any county or other area the Secretary finds that the actual production of corn plus the amount of corn stored under seal in such county or other area is less than the normal production of the marketing percentage of the farm acreage allotments in such county or other area, the Secretary shall terminate farm marketing quotas for corn in such county or other area.
(b) Whenever, upon any farm, the actual production of the acreage of corn is less than the normal production of the marketing percentage of the farm acreage allotment, there may be marketed, without penalty, from such farm an amount of corn from the corn stored under seal pursuant to section 1324 of this title which, together with the actual production of the then current crop, will equal the normal production of the marketing percentage of the farm acreage allotment.
(c) Whenever, in any marketing year, marketing quotas are not in effect with respect to the crop of corn produced in the calendar year in which such marketing year begins, all marketing quotas applicable to previous crops of corn shall be terminated.
 
 
§ 1329a. Discontinuance of acreage allotments on corn
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, acreage allotments and a commercial corn-producing area shall not be established for the 1959 and subsequent crops of corn.
 
§ 1330. Omitted
 
subpart iii—marketing quotas—wheat (§§ 1331—1340)
 
§ 1331. Legislative finding of effect on interstate and foreign commerce and necessity of regulation
Wheat is a basic source of food for the Nation, is produced throughout the United States by more than a million farmers, is sold on the country-wide market and, as wheat or flour, flows almost entirely through instrumentalities of interstate and foreign commerce from producers to consumers.
Abnormally excessive and abnormally deficient supplies of wheat on the country-wide market acutely and directly affect, burden, and obstruct interstate and foreign commerce. Abnormally excessive supplies overtax the facilities of interstate and foreign transportation, congest terminal markets and milling centers in the flow of wheat from producers to consumers, depress the price of wheat in interstate and foreign commerce, and otherwise disrupt the orderly marketing of such commodity in such commerce. Abnormally deficient supplies result in an inadequate flow of wheat and its products in interstate and foreign commerce with consequent injurious effects to the instrumentalities of such commerce and with excessive increases in the prices of wheat and its products in interstate and foreign commerce.
It is in the interest of the general welfare that interstate and foreign commerce in wheat and its products be protected from such burdensome surpluses and distressing shortages, and that a supply of wheat be maintained which is adequate to meet domestic consumption and export requirements in years of drought, flood, and other adverse conditions as well as in years of plenty, and that the soil resources of the Nation be not wasted in the production of such burdensome surpluses. Such surpluses result in disastrously low prices of wheat and other grains to wheat producers, destroy the purchasing power of grain producers for industrial products, and reduce the value of the agricultural assets supporting the national credit structure. Such shortages of wheat result in unreasonably high prices of flour and bread to consumers and loss of market outlets by wheat producers.
The conditions affecting the production and marketing of wheat are such that, without Federal assistance, farmers, individually or in cooperation, cannot effectively prevent the recurrence of such surpluses and shortages and the burdens on interstate and foreign commerce resulting therefrom, maintain normal supplies of wheat, or provide for the orderly marketing thereof in interstate and foreign commerce.
Wheat which is planted and not disposed of prior to the date prescribed by the Secretary for the disposal of excess acres of wheat is an addition to the total supply of wheat and has a direct effect on the price of wheat in interstate and foreign commerce and may also affect the supply and price of livestock and livestock products. In the circumstances, wheat not disposed of prior to such date must be considered in the same manner as mechanically harvested wheat in order to achieve the policy of the chapter.
The diversion of substantial acreages from wheat to the production of commodities which are in surplus supply or which will be in surplus supply if they are permitted to be grown on the diverted acreage would burden, obstruct, and adversely affect interstate and foreign commerce in such commodities, and would adversely affect the prices of such commodities in interstate and foreign commerce. Small changes in the supply of a commodity could create a sufficient surplus to affect seriously the price of such commodity in interstate and foreign commerce. Large changes in the supply of such commodity could have a more acute effect on the price of the commodity in interstate and foreign commerce and, also, could overtax the handling, processing, and transportation facilities through which the flow of interstate and foreign commerce in such commodity is directed. Such adverse effects caused by overproduction in one year could further result in a deficient supply of the commodity in the succeeding year, causing excessive increases in the price of the commodity in interstate and foreign commerce in such year. It is, therefore, necessary to prevent acreage diverted from the production of wheat to be used to produce commodities which are in surplus supply or which will be in surplus supply if they are permitted to be grown on the diverted acreage.
The provisions of this subpart affording a cooperative plan to wheat producers are necessary in order to minimize recurring surpluses and shortages of wheat in interstate and foreign commerce, to provide for the maintenance of adequate reserve supplies thereof, to provide for an adequate and orderly flow of wheat and its products in interstate and foreign commerce at prices which are fair and reasonable to farmers and consumers, and to prevent acreage diverted from the production of wheat from adversely affecting other commodities in interstate and foreign commerce.
 
§ 1332. National marketing quota
(a) Proclamation; duration of program
Whenever prior to April 15 in any calendar year the Secretary determines that the total supply of wheat in the marketing year beginning in the next succeeding calendar year will, in the absence of a marketing quota program, likely be excessive, the Secretary shall proclaim that a national marketing quota for wheat shall be in effect for such marketing year and for either the following marketing year or the following two marketing years, if the Secretary determines and declares in such proclamation that a two- or three-year marketing quota program is necessary to effectuate the policy of the chapter.
(b) Amount; minimum
If a national marketing quota for wheat has been proclaimed for any marketing year, the Secretary shall determine and proclaim the amount of the national marketing quota for such marketing year not earlier than January 1 or later than April 15 of the calendar year preceding the year in which such marketing year begins. The amount of the national marketing quota for wheat for any marketing year shall be an amount of wheat which the Secretary estimates (i) will be utilized during such marketing year for human consumption in the United States as food, food products, and beverages, composed wholly or partly of wheat, (ii) will be utilized during such marketing year in the United States for seed, (iii) will be exported either in the form of wheat or products thereof, and (iv) will be utilized during such marketing year in the United States as livestock (including poultry) feed, excluding the estimated quantity of wheat which will be utilized for such purpose as a result of the substitution of wheat for feed grains under section 1339c of this title; less (A) an amount of wheat equal to the estimated imports of wheat into the United States during such marketing year and, (B) if the stocks of wheat owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation are determined by the Secretary to be excessive, an amount of wheat determined by the Secretary to be a desirable reduction in such marketing year in such stocks to achieve the policy of the chapter: Provided, That if the Secretary determines that the total stocks of wheat in the Nation are insufficient to assure an adequate carryover for the next succeeding marketing year, the national marketing quota otherwise determined shall be increased by the amount the Secretary determines to be necessary to assure an adequate carryover: And provided further, That the national marketing quota for wheat for any marketing year shall be not less than one billion bushels.
(c) National emergencies or material increase in demand; investigation; increase or termination
If, after the proclamation of a national marketing quota for wheat for any marketing year, the Secretary has reason to believe that, because of a national emergency or because of a material increase in the demand for wheat, the national marketing quota should be terminated or the amount thereof increased, he shall cause an immediate investigation to be made to determine whether such action is necessary in order to meet such emergency or increase in the demand for wheat. If, on the basis of such investigation, the Secretary finds that such action is necessary, he shall immediately proclaim such finding and the amount of any such increase found by him to be necessary and thereupon such national marketing quota shall be so increased or terminated. In case any national marketing quota is increased under this subsection, the Secretary shall provide for such increase by increasing acreage allotments established under this subpart by a uniform percentage.
(d) Farm marketing quotas for wheat crops planted in calendar years 1966–1970
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary shall proclaim a national marketing quota for the crops of wheat planted for harvest in the calendar years 1966 through 1970, and farm marketing quotas shall not be in effect for such crops of wheat.
 
§ 1333. National acreage allotment
The Secretary shall proclaim a national acreage allotment for each crop of wheat. The amount of the national acreage allotment for any crop of wheat shall be the number of acres which the Secretary determines on the basis of the projected national yield and expected underplantings (acreage other than that not harvested because of program incentives) of farm acreage allotments will produce an amount of wheat equal to the national marketing quota for wheat for the marketing year for such crop, or if a national marketing quota was not proclaimed, the quota which would have been determined if one had been proclaimed.
 
§ 1334. Apportionment of national acreage allotment
(a) Apportionment among States; special acreage reserve
The national allotment for wheat, less a reserve of not to exceed 1 per centum thereof for apportionment as provided in this subsection and less the special acreage reserve provided for in this subsection, shall be apportioned by the Secretary among the States on the basis of the preceding year’s allotment for each such State, including all amounts allotted to the State and including for 1967 the increased acreage in the State allotted for 1966 under section 1335 of this title, adjusted to the extent deemed necessary by the Secretary to establish a fair and equitable apportionment base for each State, taking into consideration established crop rotation practices, estimated decrease in farm allotments because of loss of history, and other relevant factors. The reserve acreage set aside herein for apportionment by the Secretary shall be used
(1) to make allotments to counties in addition to the county allotments made under subsection (b) of this section, on the basis of the relative needs of counties for additional allotments because of reclamation and other new areas coming into production of wheat, or
(2) to increase the allotment for any county, in which wheat is the principal grain crop produced, on the basis of its relative need for such increase if the average ratio of wheat acreage allotment to cropland on old wheat farms in such county is less by at least 20 per centum than such average ratio on old wheat farms in an adjoining county or counties in which wheat is the principal grain crop produced or if there is a definable contiguous area consisting of at least 10 per centum of the cropland acreage in such county in which the average ratio of wheat acreage allotment to cropland on old wheat farms is less by at least 20 per centum than such average ratio on the remaining old wheat farms in such county, provided that such low ratio of wheat acreage allotment to cropland is due to the shift prior to 1951 from wheat to one or more alternative income-producing crops which, because of plant disease or sustained loss of markets, may no longer be produced at a fair profit and there is no other alternative income-producing crop suitable for production in the area or county. The increase in the county allotment under clause (2) of the preceding sentence shall be used to increase allotments for old wheat farms in the affected area to make such allotments comparable with those on similar farms in adjoining areas or counties but the average ratio of increased allotments to cropland on such farms shall not exceed the average ratio of wheat acreage allotment to cropland on old wheat farms in the adjoining areas or counties. There also shall be made available a special acreage reserve of not in excess of one million acres as determined by the Secretary to be desirable for the purposes hereof which shall be in addition to the national acreage reserve provided for in this subsection. Such special acreage reserve shall be made available to the States to make additional allotments to counties on the basis of the relative needs of counties, as determined by the Secretary, for additional allotments to make adjustments in the allotments on old wheat farms (that is, farms on which wheat has been seeded or regarded as seeded to one or more of the three crops immediately preceding the crop for which the allotment is established) on which the ratio of wheat acreage allotment to cropland on the farm is less than one-half the average ratio of wheat acreage allotment to cropland on old wheat farms in the county. Such adjustments shall not provide an allotment for any farm which would result in an allotment-cropland ratio for the farm in excess of one-half of such county average ratio and the total of such adjustments in any county shall not exceed the acreage made available therefor in the county. Such apportionment from the special acreage reserve shall be made only to counties where wheat is a major income-producing crop, only to farms on which there is limited opportunity for the production of an alternative income-producing crop, and only if an efficient farming operation on the farm requires the allotment of additional acreage from the special acreage reserve. For the purposes of making adjustments hereunder the cropland on the farm shall not include any land developed as cropland subsequent to the 1963 crop year.
(b) Apportionment among counties
The State acreage allotment for wheat, less a reserve of not to exceed 3 per centum thereof for apportionment as provided in subsection (c) of this section, shall be apportioned by the Secretary among the counties in the State, on the basis of the preceding year’s wheat allotment in each such county, including for 1967 the increased acreage in the county allotted for 1966 pursuant to section 1335 of this title, adjusted to the extent deemed necessary by the Secretary in order to establish a fair and equitable apportionment base for each county, taking into consideration established crop rotation practices, estimated decrease in farm allotments because of loss of history, and other relevant factors.
(c) Apportionment among farms; overplanted allotments; reductions; notice
(1) The allotment to the county shall be apportioned by the Secretary, through the local committees, among the farms within the county on the basis of past acreage of wheat, tillable acres, crop-rotation practices, type of soil, and topography. Not more than 3 per centum of the State allotment shall be apportioned to farms on which wheat has not been planted during any of the three marketing years immediately preceding the marketing year in which the allotment is made. For the purpose of establishing farm acreage allotments—
(i) the past acreage of wheat on any farm for 1958 or 1965 shall be the base acreage determined for the farm under the regulations issued by the Secretary for determining 1958 or 1965 farm wheat acreage allotments;
(ii) if subsequent to the determination of such base acreage the 1958 or 1965 wheat acreage allotment for the farm is increased through administrative, review, or court proceedings, the 1958 or 1965 farm base acreage shall be increased in the same proportion; and
(iii) the past acreage of wheat for 1959 and any subsequent year except 1965 shall be the wheat acreage on the farm which is not in excess of the farm wheat acreage allotment, plus, in the case wheat acreage on the farm which is not in excess of wheat acreage allotment, the acreage diverted under such wheat allotment programs: Provided, That for 1959 and subsequent years in the case of any farm on which the entire amount of the farm marketing excess is delivered to the Secretary or stored in accordance with applicable regulations to avoid or postpone payment of the penalty, the past acreage of wheat for the year in which such farm marketing excess is so delivered or stored shall be the farm base acreage of wheat determined for the farm under the regulations issued by the Secretary for determining farm wheat acreage allotments for such year, but if any part of the amount of wheat so stored is later depleted and penalty becomes due by reason of such depletion, for the purpose of establishing farm wheat acreage allotments subsequent to such depletion the past acreage of wheat for the farm for the year in which the excess was produced shall be reduced to the farm wheat acreage allotment for such year.
(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, each old or new farm acreage allotment for the 1962 crop of wheat as determined on the basis of a minimum national acreage allotment of fifty-five million acres shall be reduced by 10 per centum. In the event notices of farm acreage allotments for the 1962 crop of wheat have been mailed to farm operators prior to the effective date of this subparagraph (2), new notices showing the required reduction shall be mailed to farm operators as soon as practicable.
(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, the past acreage of wheat for 1967 and any subsequent year shall be the acreage of wheat planted, plus the acreage regarded as planted, for harvest as grain on the farm which is not in excess of the farm acreage allotment.
(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this subsection (c), the farm acreage allotment for the 1967 and any subsequent crop of wheat shall be established for each old farm by apportioning the county wheat acreage allotment among farms in the county on which wheat has been planted, or is considered to have been planted, for harvest as grain in any one of the three years immediately preceding the year for which allotments are determined on the basis of past acreage of wheat and the farm acreage allotment for the year immediately preceding the year for which the allotment is being established, adjusted as hereinafter provided. For purposes of this paragraph, the acreage allotment for the immediately preceding year may be adjusted to reflect established crop-rotation practices, may be adjusted downward to reflect a reduction in the tillable acreage on the farm, and may be adjusted upward to reflect such other factors as the Secretary determines should be considered for the purpose of establishing a fair and equitable allotment: Provided, That
(i) for the purposes of computing the allotment for any year, the acreage allotment for the farm for the immediately preceding year shall be decreased by 7 per centum if for the year immediately preceding the year for which such reduction is made neither a voluntary diversion program nor a voluntary certificate program was in effect and there was noncompliance with the farm acreage allotment for such year;
(ii) for purposes of clause (i), any farm on which the entire amount of farm marketing excess is delivered to the Secretary, stored, or adjusted to zero in accordance with applicable regulations to avoid or postpone payment of the penalty when farm marketing quotas are in effect, shall be considered in compliance with the allotment, but if any part of the amount of wheat so stored is later depleted and penalty becomes due by reason of such depletion, the allotment for such farm next computed after determination of such depletion shall be reduced by reducing the allotment for the immediately preceding year by 7 per centum; and
(iii) for purposes of clause (i) if the Secretary determines that the reduction in the allotment does not provide fair and equitable treatment to producers on farms following special crop rotation practices, he may modify such reduction in the allotment as he determines to be necessary to provide fair and equitable treatment to such producers.
(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 89–321, title V, § 501(6), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1201
(e) Increase in acreage allotments and marketing quotas for class II durum wheat
If, with respect to the 1962 and 1963 crops of wheat, the Secretary determines that the acreage allotments of farms producing durum wheat are inadequate to provide for the production of a sufficient quantity of durum wheat to satisfy the demands therefor (but not including export demand involving a subsidy by, or a loss to, the Federal Government), he shall increase the farm marketing quotas and acreage allotments for such crop of wheat for farms located in counties in the States of North Dakota, Minnesota, Montana, South Dakota, and California, designated by the Secretary as counties which
(1) are capable of producing durum wheat (class II), and
(2) have produced such wheat for commercial food products during one or more of the five years immediately preceding the year in which such crop is harvested. The Secretary shall determine the percentage factor by which the average acreage of durum wheat (class II) produced during the last two-year period for which statistics are available (excluding any increases in durum wheat acreage as a result of increases in wheat acreage allotments authorized by this subsection) must be increased to satisfy such demand. The wheat acreage allotment for any farm established for such crop without regard to this subsection, after reduction in the case of the 1962 crop as required by subsection (c)(2) of this section (hereinafter referred to as the “original allotment”), shall be increased by an acreage computed by multiplying the average acreage of durum wheat (class II) on the farm during such two-year period (excluding any increase in the acreage of durum wheat as a result of an increase in the wheat acreage allotment for the farm authorized by this subsection) by such percentage factor: Provided, That such increased allotment shall not exceed the cropland on the farm well suited to wheat. The increase in the wheat acreage allotment for any farm shall be conditioned upon the production of an acreage of durum wheat (class II) at least equal to the average acreage of such wheat produced during such two-year period plus the number of acres by which the allotment is increased. Any increases in wheat acreage allotments authorized by this subsection shall be in addition to the National, State, and county wheat acreage allotments, and such increases shall not be considered in establishing future State, county, and farm allotments. The provisions of sections 1326 (b) and1340 (6) of this title, relating to the reduction of the storage amount of wheat shall apply to the allotment for the farm established without regard to this subsection and not to the increased allotment under this subsection. As used in this subsection the term “durum wheat” means durum wheat (class II) other than the varieties known as “Golden Ball” and “Peliss”. Any farm receiving an increased allotment under this subsection shall not be required as a condition of eligibility for price support, or permitted, to participate in the special 1962 wheat program formulated under section 124 of the Agricultural Act of 1961, or section 307 of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1962. The Secretary shall give growers and millers of durum wheat and manufacturers of semolina products an opportunity to present their views and recommendations, prior to making any determination hereunder.
(f) Voluntary surrender of acreage allotment
Any part of any 1955, 1956, or 1957 farm wheat acreage allotment on which wheat will not be planted and which is voluntarily surrendered to the county committee shall be deducted from the allotment to such farm and may be reapportioned by the county committee to other farms in the same county receiving allotments in amounts determined by the county committee to be fair and reasonable on the basis of past acreage of wheat tillable acres, crop rotation practices, type of soil, and topography. If all of the allotted acreage voluntarily surrendered is not needed in the county, the county committee may surrender the excess acreage to the State committee to be used for the same purposes as the State acreage reserve under subsection (c) of this section. Any allotment transferred under this provision shall be regarded for the purposes of subsection (c) of this section as having been planted on the farm from which transferred rather than on the farm to which transferred, except that this shall not operate to make the farm from which the allotment was transferred eligible for an allotment as having wheat planted thereon during the three-year base period: Provided, That notwithstanding any other provisions of law, any part of any 1955, 1956, or 1957 farm acreage allotment may be permanently released in writing to the county committee by the owner and operator of the farm, and reapportioned as provided herein. Acreage surrendered, reapportioned under this subsection, and planted shall be credited to the State and county in determining future acreage allotments.
(g) Plantings in excess of allotments or where no allotment is established
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no acreage in the commercial wheat-producing area seeded to wheat for harvest as grain in 1958 or thereafter except 1965 in excess of acreage allotments shall be considered in establishing future State and county acreage allotments. The planting on a farm in the commercial wheat-producing area of wheat of the 1958 or any subsequent crop for which no farm wheat acreage allotment was established shall not make the farm eligible for an allotment as an old farm pursuant to the first sentence of subsection (c) of this section nor shall such farm by reason of such planting be considered ineligible for an allotment as a new farm under the second sentence of such subsection.
(h) Omitted
(i) Increase in acreage allotments for any kind of wheat in short supply; storage reduction and land-use provisions inapplicable to such wheat
If, with respect to any crop of wheat, the Secretary finds that the acreage allotments of farms producing any type of wheat are inadequate to provide for the production of a sufficient quantity of such type of wheat to satisfy the demand therefor, the wheat acreage allotment for such crop for each farm located in a county designated by the Secretary as a county which
(1) is capable of producing such type of wheat, and
(2) has produced such type of wheat for commercial food products during one or more of the five years immediately preceding the year in which such crop is harvested, shall be increased by such uniform percentage as he deems necessary to provide for such quantity. No increase shall be made under this subsection in the wheat acreage allotment of any farm for any crop if any wheat other than such type of wheat is planted on such farm for such crop. Any increases in wheat acreage allotments authorized by this subsection shall be in addition to the National, State, and county wheat acreage allotments, and such increases shall not be considered in establishing future State, county, and farm allotments. The provisions of sections 1326 (b) and 1340 (6) of this title, relating to the reduction of the storage amount of wheat shall apply to the allotment for the farm established without regard to this subsection and not to the increased allotment under this subsection. The land-use provisions of section 1339 of this title shall not be applicable to any farm receiving an increased allotment under this subsection and the producers on such farms shall not be required to comply with such provisions as a condition of eligibility for price support.
(j) Increased durum wheat acreage allotments to ­Tulelake area, California, for 1970 and subsequent years; factors determinative; effect of increased allotments on marketing allocations and diversion payments
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary shall increase the acreage allotments for the 1970 and subsequent crops of wheat for privately owned farms in the irrigable portion of the area known as the Tulelake division of the Klamath project of California located in Modoc and Siskiyou Counties, California, as defined by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, and hereinafter referred to as the area. The increase for the area for each such crop shall be determined by adding, to the extent applications are made therefor, to the total allotments established for privately owned farms in the area for the particular crop without regard to this subsection (hereinafter referred to as the original allotments) an acreage sufficient to make available for each such crop a total allotment of twelve thousand acres for the area. The additional allotments made available by this subsection shall be in addition to the National, State, and county allotments otherwise established under this section, and the acreage planted to wheat pursuant to such increases in allotments shall not be taken into account in establishing future State, county, and farm acreage allotments except as may be desirable in providing increases in allotments for subsequent years under this subsection for the production of Durum [1] wheat. The Secretary shall apportion the additional allotment acreage made available under this subsection between Modoc and Siskiyou Counties on the basis of the relative needs for additional allotments for the portion of the area in each county. The Secretary shall allot such additional acreage to individual farms in the area for which applications for increased acreages are made on the basis of tillable acres, crop rotation practices, type of soil and topography, and the original allotment for the farm, if any. The increase in the wheat acreage allotment for any farm under this subsection (1) shall not be taken into account in computing the farm wheat marketing allocation under section 1379b of this title, and (2) shall be conditioned upon the production of Durum [1] wheat on the original allotment and on the increased acreage. The producers on a farm receiving an increased allotment under this subsection shall not be eligible for diversion payments under section 1339 of this title.
(k) Transfer of farm wheat acreage allotments in case of natural disasters
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, if the Secretary determines that because of a natural disaster a portion of the farm wheat acreage allotments in a county cannot be timely planted or replanted, he may authorize the transfer of all or a part of the wheat acreage allotment for any farm in the county so affected to another farm in the county or in an adjoining county on which one or more of the producers on the farm from which the transfer is to be made will be engaged in the production of wheat and will share in the proceeds thereof, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe. Any farm allotment transferred under this subsection shall be deemed to be planted on the farm from which it was transferred for the purposes of acreage history credits under this chapter.
 
§ 1334a. Omitted
 
§ 1334a-1. Summer fallow farms; upper limit on required set aside acreage for 1971 through 1977 wheat, feed grain, and cotton crops
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for the 1971 through 1977 crops of wheat, feed grains and cotton, if in any year at least 55 per centum of the cropland acreage on an established summer fallow farm is devoted to a summer fallow use, no further acreage shall be required to be set aside under the wheat, feed grain and cotton programs for such year.
 
§ 1334b. Designation of States outside commercial wheat-producing areas
If the acreage allotment for any State for any crop of wheat is twenty-five thousand acres or less, the Secretary, in order to promote efficient administration of this chapter and the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.], may designate such State as outside the commercial wheat-producing area for the marketing year for such crop. If such State is so designated, acreage allotments for such crop and marketing quotas for the marketing year therefor shall not be applicable to any farm in such State. Acreage allotments in any State shall not be increased by reason of such designation.
 
§ 1335. Small-farm exemption; small-farm base acreage; election; acreage allotment; land-use provisions; price support; wheat marketing certificates
Notwithstanding any other provision of this subpart, no farm marketing quota for any crop of wheat shall be applicable to any farm with a farm acreage allotment of less than fifteen acres if the acreage of such crop of wheat does not exceed the small-farm base acreage determined for the farm, unless the operator elects in writing on a form and within the time prescribed by the Secretary to be subject to the farm acreage allotment and marketing quota. The small-farm base acreage for a farm shall be the smaller of (A) the average acreage of the crop of wheat planted for harvest in the three years 1959, 1960, and 1961, or such later three-year period, excluding 1963, determined by the Secretary to be representative, with adjustments for abnormal weather conditions, established crop-rotation practices on the farm, and such other factors as the Secretary determines should be considered for the purpose of establishing a fair and equitable small-farm base acreage, or (B) fifteen acres. The acreage allotment for any farm shall be the larger of (1) the small-farm base acreage determined as provided above on the basis of the three-year period 1959–1961, reduced by the same percentage by which the national acreage allotment for the crop is reduced below fifty-five million acres, or (2) the acreage allotment determined without regard to (1) above. If the operator of any such farm fails to make such election with respect to any crop of wheat, (i) for the purposes of section 1340 of this title, the farm acreage allotment for such crop of wheat shall be deemed to be the larger of (A) the small-farm base acreage or (B) the acreage allotment for the farm, (ii) the land-use provisions of section 1339 of this title shall be inapplicable to the farm, (iii) such crop of wheat shall not be eligible for price support, and (iv) wheat marketing certificates applicable to such crop shall not be issued with respect to the farm. The additional acreage required to provide acreage allotments for farms based upon small-farm base acreages under this section shall be in addition to National, State, and county acreage allotments. This section shall not be applicable to the crops planted for harvest in 1967 and subsequent years.
 
§ 1336. Referendum
If a national marketing quota for wheat for one, two, or three marketing years is proclaimed, the Secretary shall, not later than August 1 of the calendar year in which such national marketing quota is proclaimed, conduct a referendum, by secret ballot, of farmers to determine whether they favor or oppose marketing quotas for the marketing year or years for which proclaimed. Any producer who has a farm acreage allotment shall be eligible to vote in any referendum held pursuant to this section, except that a producer who has a farm acreage allotment of less than fifteen acres shall not be eligible to vote unless the farm operator elected pursuant to section 1335 of this title to be subject to the farm marketing quota. The Secretary shall proclaim the results of any referendum held hereunder within thirty days after the date of such referendum, and if the Secretary determines that more than one-third of the farmers voting in the referendum voted against marketing quotas, the Secretary shall proclaim that marketing quotas will not be in effect with respect to the crop of wheat produced for harvest in the calendar year following the calendar year in which the referendum is held. If the Secretary determines that two-thirds or more of the farmers voting in a referendum approve marketing quotas for a period of two or three marketing years, no referendum shall be held for the subsequent year or years of such period. Notwithstanding any other provision hereof, the referendum with respect to the national marketing quota for wheat for the marketing year beginning June 1, 1986, may be conducted not later than thirty-one days after December 20, 1985.
 
§ 1337. Repealed.]
 
§ 1338. Transfer of quotas
Farm marketing quotas for wheat shall not be transferable, but, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary for such purpose, any farm marketing quota in excess of the supply of wheat for such farm for any marketing year may be allocated to other farms on which the acreage allotment has not been exceeded.
 
§ 1339. Land use
(a) Penalties: computation, lien, joint and several liability and interest; exceptions: nonsurplus supply crops, substantial impairment, and nonproduction of wheat; diverted acreage: amount, annual identity, and grazing; crops available for marketing
(1) During any year in which marketing quotas for wheat are in effect, the producers on any farm (except a new farm receiving an allotment from the reserve for new farms) on which any crop is produced on acreage required to be diverted from the production of wheat shall be subject to a penalty on such crop, in addition to any marketing quota penalty applicable to such crops, as provided in this subsection unless (1) the crop is designated by the Secretary as one which is not in surplus supply and will not be in surplus supply if it is permitted to be grown on the diverted acreage, or as one the production of which will not substantially impair the purpose of the requirements of this section, or (2) no wheat is produced on the farm, and the producers have not filed an agreement or a statement of intention to participate in the payment program formulated pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. The acreage required to be diverted from the production of wheat on the farm shall be an acreage of cropland equal to the number of acres determined by multiplying the farm acreage allotment by the diversion factor determined by dividing the number of acres by which the national acreage allotment (less an acreage equal to the increased acreage allotted for 1966 pursuant to section 1335 of this title) is reduced below fifty-five million acres by the number of acres in the national acreage allotment (less an acreage equal to the increased acreage allotted for 1966 pursuant to section 1335 of this title). The actual production of any crop subject to penalty under this subsection shall be regarded as available for marketing and the penalty on such crop shall be computed on the actual acreage of such crop at the rate of 65 per centum of the parity price per bushel of wheat as of May 1 of the calendar year in which such crop is harvested, multiplied by the normal yield of wheat per acre established for the farm. Until the producers on any farm pay the penalty on such crop, the entire crop of wheat produced on the farm and any subsequent crop of wheat subject to marketing quotas in which the producer has an interest shall be subject to a lien in favor of the United States for the amount of the penalty. Each producer having an interest in the crop or crops on acreage diverted or required to be diverted from the production of wheat shall be jointly and severally liable for the entire amount of the penalty. The persons liable for the payment or collection of the penalty under this section shall be liable also for interest thereon at the rate of 6 per centum per annum from the date the penalty becomes due until the date of payment of such penalty.
(2) The Secretary may require that the acreage on any farm diverted from the production of wheat be land which was diverted from the production of wheat in the previous year, to the extent he determines that such requirement is necessary to effectuate the purposes of this part.
(3) The Secretary may permit the diverted acreage to be grazed in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(b) Payment program for 1964 through 1970 crops; terms and conditions; amount; additional diverted acreage; conservation and soil-conserving uses; adjustment; knowledge of exceeding acreage allotment; acreage allotment not exceeded by delivery to Secretary of farm marketing excess or storage in accordance with regulations to avoid or postpone payment of penalty or by farms exempt from marketing quota; new farms ineligible for payments; sharing and medium of payments
The Secretary is authorized to formulate and carry out a program with respect to the crops of wheat planted for harvest in the calendar years 1964 through 1970 under which, subject to such terms and conditions as he determines are desirable to effectuate the purposes of this section, payments may be made in amounts not in excess of 50 per centum of the estimated basic county support rate for wheat not accompanied by marketing certificates on the normal production of the acreage diverted taking into account the income objectives of the chapter, determined by the Secretary to be fair and reasonable with respect to acreage diverted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section. Any producer who complies with his 1964 farm acreage allotment for wheat and with the other requirements of the program shall be eligible to receive payments under the program for the 1964 crop of wheat. The Secretary may permit producers on any farm to divert from the production of wheat an acreage, in addition to the acreage diverted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, equal to 50 per centum of the farm acreage allotment for wheat: Provided, That the producers on any farm may, at their election, divert such acreage in addition to the acreage diverted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, as will bring the total acreage diverted on the farm to twenty-five acres. Such program shall require
(1) that the diverted acreage shall be devoted to conservation uses approved by the Secretary;
(2) that the total acreage of cropland on the farm devoted to soil-conserving uses, including summer fallow and idle land but excluding the acreage diverted as provided above, shall be not less than the total average acreage of cropland devoted to soil-conserving uses including summer fallow and idle land on the farm during a representative period, as determined by the Secretary, adjusted to the extent the Secretary determines appropriate for
(i) abnormal weather conditions or other factors affecting production,
(ii) established crop-rotation practices on the farm,
(iii) participation in other Federal farm programs,
(iv) unusually high percentage of land on the farm devoted to conserving uses, and
(v) other factors which the Secretary determines should be considered for the purpose of establishing a fair and equitable soil-conserving acreage for the farm; and
(3) that the producer shall not knowingly exceed
(i) any farm acreage allotment in effect for any commodity produced on the farm, and
(ii) except as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe, with the farm acreage allotments on any other farm for any crop in which the producer has a share: Provided, That no producer shall be deemed to have exceeded a farm acreage allotment for wheat if the entire amount of the farm marketing excess is delivered to the Secretary or stored in accordance with applicable regulations to avoid or postpone payment of the penalty: And provided further, That no producer shall be deemed to have exceeded a farm acreage allotment for any crop of wheat if the farm is exempt from the farm marketing quota for such crop under section 1335 of this title. The producers on a new farm shall not be eligible for payments hereunder. The Secretary shall provide for the sharing of payment among producers on the farm on a fair and equitable basis. Payments may be made in cash or in wheat.
(c) Adjustment of payments
The Secretary may provide for adjusting any payment on account of failure to comply with the terms and conditions of the land-use program formulated under subsection (b) of this section.
(d) Advance payments
Not to exceed 50 per centum of any payment to producers under subsection (b) of this section may be made in advance of determination of performance.
(e) Diverted acreage used for production of certain crops; rate of payment; limitation on rate
The Secretary may permit all or any part of the diverted acreage to be devoted to the production of guar, sesame, safflower, sunflower, castor beans, mustard seed, crambe, plantago ovato, and flaxseed, if he determines that such production of the commodity is needed to provide an adequate supply, is not likely to increase the cost of the price-support program and will not adversely affect farm income, subject to the condition that payment with respect to diverted acreage devoted to any such crop shall be at a rate determined by the Secretary to be fair and reasonable taking into consideration the use of such acreage for the production of such crops: Provided, That in no event shall the payment exceed one-half the rate which otherwise would be applicable if such acreage were devoted to conservation uses.
(f) Additional terms and conditions
The program formulated pursuant to subsection (b) of this section may include such terms and conditions, including provision for the control of erosion, in addition to those specifically provided for herein, as the Secretary determines are desirable to effectuate the purposes of this section.
(g) Regulations
The Secretary is authorized to promulgate such regulations as may be desirable to carry out the provisions of this section.
(h) Commodity Credit Corporation funds and authorization of appropriations for payments and administrative expenses
The Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized to utilize its capital funds and other assets for the purpose of making the payments authorized in this section and to pay administrative expenses necessary in carrying out this section during the period ending June 30, 1965. There is authorized to be appropriated such amounts as may be necessary thereafter to pay such administrative expenses.
 
§ 1339a. Repealed.]
 
§ 1339b. Wheat diversion programs; credits in establishment of State, county and farm acreage allotments for wheat
In the establishment of State, county, and farm acreage allotments for wheat under this chapter, the acreage which is determined under regulations of the Secretary to have been diverted from the production of wheat under the special programs formulated pursuant to section 307 of this Act, section 1339 of this title, and section 124 of the Agricultural Act of 1961, shall be credited to the State, county, and farm as though such acreage had actually been devoted to the production of wheat.
 
§ 1339c. Feed grains diversion programs for 1964 and subsequent years; feed grain acreage considered wheat acreage and wheat acreage considered feed grain acreage
Effective with the 1964 crop, during any year in which an acreage diversion program is in effect for feed grains, the Secretary shall, notwithstanding any other provision of law, permit producers of feed grains to have acreage devoted to the production of feed grains considered as devoted to the production of wheat and producers of wheat to have acreage devoted to the production of wheat considered as devoted to the production of feed grains to such extent and subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines will not impair the effective operation of the program for feed grains or wheat. In establishing terms and conditions for permitting wheat to be planted in lieu of oats and rye, the Secretary may take into account the number of feed units per acre of wheat in relation to the number of feed units per acre of oats and rye.
 
§ 1339d. Hay production on set-aside or diverted acreage; storage; emergency use; loans
(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall permit any producer who is participating in the wheat program under title IV of this Act, in the feed grain program under title V of this Act, or in the cotton program under title VI of this Act, in any year in which an acreage diversion or set-aside program is in effect, under any such program in which such producer is participating, subject to the conditions prescribed in subsection (b) of this section, to plant and harvest hay from 25 per centum of the acreage on the farm diverted from production under such programs or twenty-five acres, whichever is greater.
(b) Any producer who elects to plant and harvest hay on diverted or set aside acreage pursuant to this section shall first agree not to use any such hay harvested from such acreage unless authorized to do so by the Secretary.
(c) When any diverted or set aside acreage has been planted and harvested under authority of this section, the hay harvested therefrom shall be baled and stored in sealed storage on the farm in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe and shall be available only for use during periods of emergency declared by the Secretary. In order to avoid deterioration of such hay stored on the farm for emergency purposes pursuant to this section, the Secretary may permit such hay to be removed and used or sold from time to time so long as an amount of hay equal to the amount removed is previously placed in storage and sealed.
(d) Any farmer who has hay stored on his farm for emergency purposes pursuant to this section may remove such hay from storage and use it whenever the Secretary has
(1) designated as an emergency area the area in which such farm is located, and
(2) specifically authorized the use of emergency hay by farmers in the area.
(e) The Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to make or guarantee loans to farmers, both tenants and landowners, to assist such farmers in the construction of storage facilities on the farm for the storage of emergency hay pursuant to the provisions of this section if such farmers are unable to obtain loans from commercial sources at reasonable rates and on reasonable terms and conditions. Loans made by the Secretary under this subsection shall be made at the current rate of interest for periods not exceeding ten years, and on such other terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe.
 
§ 1340. Supplemental provisions relating to wheat marketing quotas; marketing penalty for rice; crop loans on cotton, wheat, rice, tobacco, and peanuts
Notwithstanding the other provisions of this chapter—
(1) The farm marketing quota for any crop of wheat shall be the actual production of the acreage planted to such crop of wheat on the farm less the farm marketing excess. The farm marketing excess shall be an amount equal to twice the projected farm yield multiplied by the number of acres of such crop of wheat on the farm in excess of the farm acreage allotment for such crop unless the producer, in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary and within the time prescribed therein, establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary the actual production of such crop of wheat on the farm. If such actual production is so established, the farm marketing excess shall be an amount equal to the actual production of the number of acres of wheat on the farm in excess of the farm acreage allotment for such crop. In determining the farm marketing quota and farm marketing excess, any acreage of wheat remaining after the date prescribed by the Secretary for the disposal of excess acres of wheat shall be included as acreage of wheat on the farm, and the production thereof shall be appraised in such manner as the Secretary determines will provide a reasonably accurate estimate of such production. Any acreage of wheat disposed of in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary prior to such date as may be prescribed by the Secretary shall be excluded in determining the farm marketing quota and farm marketing excess. Self-seeded (volunteer) wheat shall be included in determining the acreage of wheat. Marketing quotas for any marketing year shall be in effect with respect to wheat harvested in the calendar year in which such marketing year begins notwithstanding that the wheat is marketed prior to the beginning of such marketing year.
(2) Whenever farm marketing quotas are in effect with respect to any crop of wheat, the producers on a farm shall be subject to a penalty on the farm marketing excess of wheat at a rate per bushel equal to 65 per centum of the parity price per bushel of wheat as of May 1 of the calendar year in which the crop is harvested. Each producer having an interest in the crop of wheat on any farm for which a farm marketing excess of wheat is determined shall be jointly and severally liable for the entire amount of the penalty on the farm marketing excess.
(3) The farm marketing excess for wheat shall be regarded as available for marketing, and the penalty and the storage amount or amounts to be delivered to the Secretary of the commodity shall be computed upon twice the normal production of the excess acreage. Where, upon the application of the producer for an adjustment of penalty or of storage, it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the actual production of the excess acreage is less than twice the normal production thereof, the difference between the amount of the penalty or storage as computed upon the basis of twice the normal production and as computed upon the basis of actual production shall be returned to or allowed the producer. The Secretary shall issue regulations under which the farm marketing excess of the commodity for the farm may be stored or delivered to him. Upon failure to store or deliver to the Secretary the farm marketing excess within such time as may be determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the penalty computed as aforesaid shall be paid by the producer. Any wheat delivered to the Secretary hereunder shall become the property of the United States and shall be disposed of by the Secretary for relief purposes in the United States or in foreign countries or in such other manner as he shall determine will divert it from the normal channels of trade and commerce.
(4) Until the producers on any farm store, deliver to the Secretary, or pay the penalty on, the farm marketing excess of any crop of wheat, the entire crop of wheat produced on the farm and any subsequent crop of wheat subject to marketing quotas in which the producer has an interest shall be subject to a lien in favor of the United States for the amount of the penalty.
(5) The penalty upon wheat stored shall be paid by the producer at the time, and to the extent, of any depletion in the amount of the commodity so stored, except depletion resulting from some cause beyond the control of the producer.
(6) Whenever the planted acreage of the then current crop of wheat on any farm is less than the farm acreage allotment for such commodity, the total amount of the commodity from any previous crops required to be stored in order to postpone or avoid payment of penalty shall be reduced by that amount which is equal to the normal production of the number of acres by which the farm acreage allotment exceeds the planted acreage. The provisions of section 1326 (b) and (c) of this title shall be applicable also to wheat.
(7) Until the farm marketing excess of wheat is stored or delivered to the Secretary or the penalty thereon is paid, each bushel of the commodity produced on the farm which is sold by the producer to any person within the United States shall be subject to the penalty as specified in paragraph (2) of this section. Such penalty shall be paid by the buyer, who may deduct an amount equivalent to the penalty from the price paid to the producer. If the buyer fails to collect such penalty, such buyer and all persons entitled to share in the wheat marketed from the farm or the proceeds thereof shall be jointly and severally liable for such penalty.
(8) The marketing penalty for rice produced in the calendar year in which any marketing year begins (if beginning with or after the 1941–1942 marketing year) shall be at a rate equal to 50 per centum of the basic rate of the loan for cooperators for such marketing year under section 1302 of this title and this section.
(9) Omitted.
(10) The provisions of this section are amendatory of and supplementary to this chapter, and all provisions of law applicable in respect of marketing quotas and loans under such chapter as so amended and supplemented shall be applicable, but nothing in this section shall be construed to amend or repeal sections 1301 (b)(6)1323 (b), or1335 (d) of this title.
(11) The persons liable for the payment or collection of the penalty on any amount of wheat shall be liable also for interest thereon at the rate of 6 per centum per annum from the date the penalty becomes due until the date of payment of such penalty.
(12) If marketing quotas for wheat are not in effect for any marketing year, all previous marketing quotas applicable to wheat shall be terminated, effective as of the first day of such marketing year. Such termination shall not abate any penalty previously incurred by a producer or relieve any buyer of the duty to remit penalties previously collected by him.
 
subpart iv—marketing quotas—cotton (§§ 1341—1350a)
 
§ 1341. Legislative findings
American cotton is a basic source of clothing and industrial products used by every person in the United States and by substantial numbers of people in foreign countries. American cotton is sold on a world-wide market and moves from the places of production almost entirely in interstate and foreign commerce to processing establishments located throughout the world at places outside the State where the cotton is produced.
Fluctuations in supplies of cotton and the marketing of excessive supplies of cotton in interstate and foreign commerce disrupt the orderly marketing of cotton in such commerce with consequent injury to and destruction of such commerce. Excessive supplies of cotton directly and materially affect the volume of cotton moving in interstate and foreign commerce and cause disparity in prices of cotton and industrial products moving in interstate and foreign commerce with consequent diminution of the volume of such commerce in industrial products.
The conditions affecting the production and marketing of cotton are such that, without Federal assistance, farmers, individually or in cooperation, cannot effectively prevent the recurrence of excessive supplies of cotton and fluctuations in supplies, cannot prevent indiscriminate dumping of excessive supplies on the Nation-wide and foreign markets, cannot maintain normal carry-overs of cotton, and cannot provide for the orderly marketing of cotton in interstate and foreign commerce.
It is in the interest of the general welfare that interstate and foreign commerce in cotton be protected from the burdens caused by the marketing of excessive supplies of cotton in such commerce, that a supply of cotton be maintained which is adequate to meet domestic consumption and export requirements in years of drought, flood, and other adverse conditions as well as in years of plenty, and that the soil resources of the Nation be not wasted in the production of excessive supplies of cotton.
The provisions of this subpart affording a cooperative plan to cotton producers are necessary and appropriate to prevent the burdens on interstate and foreign commerce caused by the marketing in such commerce of excessive supplies, and to promote, foster, and maintain an orderly flow of an adequate supply of cotton in such commerce.
 
§ 1342. National marketing quota; proclamation; amount; date of proclamation
Whenever during any calendar year the Secretary determines that the total supply of cotton for the marketing year beginning in such calendar year will exceed the normal supply for such marketing year, the Secretary shall proclaim such fact and a national marketing quota shall be in effect for the crop of cotton produced in the next calendar year. The Secretary shall also determine and specify in such proclamation the amount of the national marketing quota in terms of the number of bales of cotton (standard bales of five hundred pounds gross weight) adequate, together with
(1) the estimated carry-over at the beginning of the marketing year which begins in the next calendar year and
(2) the estimated imports during such marketing year, to make available a normal supply of cotton: Provided, That beginning with the 1961 crop, the national marketing quota shall be not less than a number of bales equal to the estimated domestic consumption and estimated exports (less estimated imports) for the marketing year for which the quota is proclaimed, except that the Secretary shall make such adjustment in the amount of such quota as he determines necessary after taking into consideration the estimated stocks of cotton in the United States (including the qualities of such stocks) and stocks in foreign countries which would be available for the marketing year for which the quota is being proclaimed if no adjustment of such quota is made hereunder, to assure the maintenance of adequate but not excessive stocks in the United States to provide a continuous and stable supply of the different qualities of cotton needed in the United States and in foreign cotton consuming countries, and for purposes of national security; but the Secretary, in making such adjustments, may not reduce the national marketing quota for any year below
(i) one million bales less than the estimated domestic consumption and estimated exports for the marketing year for which such quota is being proclaimed, or
(ii) ten million bales, whichever is larger. Such proclamation shall be made not later than October 15 of the calendar year in which such determination is made. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, the national marketing quota for cotton for 1957 and 1958 shall be not less than the number of bales required to provide a national acreage allotment for 1957 and 1958 equal to the national acreage allotment for 1956: Provided, That if the acreage allotment for any State for 1957 or 1958 is less than its allotment for the preceding year by more than 1 per centum, such State allotment shall be increased so that the reduction shall not exceed 1 per centum per annum, and the acreage required for such increase shall be in addition to the national acreage allotment for such year. Additional acreage apportioned to a State for 1957 or 1958 under the foregoing proviso shall not be taken into account in establishing future State allotments. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the national marketing quota for upland cotton for 1959 and subsequent years shall be not less than the number of bales required to provide a national acreage allotment for each such year of sixteen million acres.
 
§ 1342a. National cotton production goal
The Secretary shall, not later than November 15, of the calendar years 1970 through 1976 proclaim a national cotton production goal for the 1971 and subsequent crops of upland cotton. The national cotton production goal for any year shall be the number of bales of upland cotton (standard bales of four hundred and eighty pounds net weight) equal to the estimated domestic consumption and estimated exports for the marketing year beginning in the calendar year for which such national cotton production goal is proclaimed, plus an allowance of not less than 5 per centum of such estimated consumption and estimated exports for market expansion except that the Secretary shall make such adjustments in the amount of such production goal as he determines necessary after taking into consideration the estimated stocks of upland cotton in the United States (including the qualities of such stocks) and stocks in foreign countries, which would be available for the marketing year, to assure the maintenance of adequate but not excessive carryover stocks in the United States (not less than 50 per centum of the average offtake for the three preceding marketing years) to provide a continuous and stable supply of the different qualities of upland cotton needed in the United States and in foreign cotton consuming countries and, in addition, to provide an adequate reserve for purposes of national security.
 
§ 1343. Referendum
Not later than December 15 following the issuance of the marketing quota proclamation provided for in section 1342 of this title, the Secretary shall conduct a referendum, by secret ballot, of farmers engaged in the production of cotton in the calendar year in which the referendum is held, to determine whether such farmers are in favor of or opposed to the quota so proclaimed. If more than one-third of the farmers voting in the referendum oppose the national marketing quota, such quota shall become ineffective upon proclamation of the results of the referendum. The Secretary shall proclaim the results of any referendum held hereunder within thirty days after the date of such referendum. Notwithstanding any other provision hereof, the referendum with respect to the national marketing quota for cotton for the marketing year beginning August 1, 1986, may be conducted not later than thirty-one days after adjournment sine die of the first session of the Ninety-ninth Congress.
 
§ 1344. Apportionment of national acreage allotments
(a) Basis
Whenever a national marketing quota is proclaimed under section 1342 of this title, the Secretary shall determine and proclaim a national acreage allotment for the crop of cotton to be produced in the next calendar year. The national acreage allotment for cotton shall be that acreage, based upon the national average yield per acre of cotton for the four years immediately preceding the calendar year in which the national marketing quota is proclaimed, required to make available from such crop an amount of cotton equal to the national marketing quota.
(b) Apportionment among States for year 1953 and subsequent years; adjustment; national acreage reserve
The national acreage allotment for cotton for 1953 and subsequent years shall be apportioned to the States on the basis of the acreage planted to cotton (including the acreage regarded as having been planted to cotton under the provisions of Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) during the five calendar years immediately preceding the calendar year in which the national marketing quota is proclaimed, with adjustments for abnormal weather conditions during such period: Provided, That there is established a national acreage reserve consisting of three hundred and ten thousand acres which shall be in addition to the national acreage allotment; and such reserve shall be apportioned to the States on the basis of their needs for additional acreage for establishing minimum farm allotments under subsection (f)(1) of this section, as determined by the Secretary without regard to State and county acreage reserves (except that the amount apportioned to Nevada shall be one thousand acres). For the 1960 and succeeding crops of cotton, the needs of States (other than Nevada) for such additional acreage for such purpose may be estimated by the Secretary, after taking into consideration such needs as determined or estimated for the preceding crop of cotton and the size of the national acreage allotment for such crop. The additional acreage so apportioned to the State shall be apportioned to the counties on the basis of the needs of the counties for such additional acreage for such purpose, and added to the county acreage allotment for apportionment to farms pursuant to subsection (f) of this section (except that no part of such additional acreage shall be used to increase the county reserve above 15 per centum of the county allotment determined without regard to such additional acreage). Additional acreage apportioned to a State for any year under the foregoing proviso shall not be taken into account in establishing future State acreage allotments. Needs for additional acreage under the foregoing provisions and under the last proviso in subsection (e) of this section shall be determined or estimated as though allotments were first computed without regard to subsection (f)(1) of this section.
(c) Apportionment among States for years 1950 and 1951; computation and adjustment
The national acreage allotments for cotton for the years 1950 and 1951 shall be apportioned to the States on the basis of a national acreage allotment base of twenty-two million five hundred thousand acres, computed and adjusted as follows:
(1) The average of the planted acreages (including acreage regarded as planted under the provisions of Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) in the States for the years 1945, 1946, 1947, and 1948 shall constitute the national base; except that in the case of any State having a 1948 planted cotton acreage of over one million acres and less than 50 per centum of the 1943 allotment, the average of the acreage planted (or regarded as planted under Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) for the years 1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, and 1948 shall constitute the base for such State and shall be included in computing the national base; to this is to be added
(A) the estimated additional acreage for each State required for small-farm allotments under subsection (f)(1) of this section;
(B) the acreage required as a result of the State adjustment provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection;
(C) the additional acreage required to determine a total national allotment base of twenty-two million five hundred thousand acres, which additional acreage shall be distributed on a proportionate basis among States receiving no adjustment under paragraph (2) of this subsection.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection, the acreage allotment base for 1950 and 1951 for any State (on the basis of a national acreage allotment base of twenty-two million five hundred thousand acres) shall not be less than the larger of (1) 95 per centum of the average acreage actually planted to cotton in the State during the years 1947 and 1948, or (2) 85 per centum of the acreage planted to cotton in the State in 1948.
(3) If the national acreage allotment for 1950 or 1951 is more or less than twenty-two million five hundred thousand acres, horizontal adjustments shall be made percentagewise by States so as to reflect the ratio of the national acreage allotment for 1950 and 1951 to twenty-two million five hundred thousand acres.
(d) Apportionment for year 1952; adjustment
The national acreage allotment for cotton for 1952 shall be apportioned to States on the basis of the acreage planted to cotton (including the acreage regarded as having been planted to cotton under the provisions of Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) during the years 1946, 1947, 1948, and 1950, with adjustments for abnormal weather conditions during such period.
(e) Apportionment among counties; reservation of acreage; additional acreage for establishing minimum farm allotments
The State acreage allotment for cotton shall be apportioned to counties on the same basis as to years and conditions as is applicable to the State under subsections (b), (c), and (d) of this section: Provided, That the State committee may reserve not to exceed 10 per centum of its State acreage allotment (15 per centum if the State’s 1948 planted acreage was in excess of one million acres and less than half its 1943 allotment) which shall be used to make adjustments in county allotments for trends in acreage, for counties adversely affected by abnormal conditions affecting plantings, or for small or new farms, or to correct inequities in farm allotments and to prevent hardship: Provided further, That if the additional acreage allocated to a State under the proviso in subsection (b) of this section is less than the requirements as determined or estimated by the Secretary for establishing minimum farm allotments for the State under subsection (f)(1) of this section, the acreage reserved under this subsection shall not be less than the smaller of
(1) the remaining acreage so determined or estimated to be required for establishing minimum farm allotments or
(2) 3 per centum of the State acreage allotment; and the acreage which is required to be reserved under this proviso shall be allocated to counties on the basis of their needs for additional acreage for establishing minimum farm allotments under subsection (f)(1) of this section, and added to the county acreage allotment for apportionment to farms pursuant to subsection (f) of this section (except that no part of such additional acreage shall be used to increase the county reserve above 15 per centum of the county allotment determined without regard to such additional acreages).
(f) Apportionment among farms
The county acreage allotment, less not to exceed the percentage provided for in paragraph 3 of this subsection, shall be apportioned to farms on which cotton has been planted (or regarded as having been planted under the provisions of Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) in any one of the three years immediately preceding the year for which such allotment is determined on the following basis:
(1) Insofar as such acreage is available, there shall be allotted the smaller of the following:
(A) ten acres; or
(B) the acreage allotment established for the farm for the 1958 crop.
(2) The remainder shall be allotted to farms other than farms to which an allotment has been made under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection so that the allotment to each farm under this paragraph together with the amount of the allotment to such farm under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection shall be a prescribed percentage (which percentage shall be the same for all such farms in the county or administrative area) of the acreage, during the preceding year, on the farm which is tilled annually or in regular rotation, excluding from such acreages the acres devoted to the production of sugarcane for sugar; sugar beets for sugar; wheat, tobacco, or rice for market; peanuts picked and threshed; wheat or rice for feeding to livestock for market; or lands determined to be devoted primarily to orchards or vineyards, and nonirrigated lands in irrigated areas: Provided, however, That if a farm would be allotted under this paragraph an acreage together with the amount of the allotment to such farm under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection in excess of the largest acreage planted (and regarded as planted under Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) to cotton during any of the preceding three years, the acreage allotment for such farm shall not exceed such largest acreage so planted (and regarded as planted under Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) in any such year.
(3) The county committee may reserve not in excess of 15 per centum of the county allotment (15 per centum if the State’s 1948 planted cotton acreage was in excess of one million acres and less than half its 1943 allotment) which, in addition to the acreage made available under the proviso in subsection (e) of this section, shall be used for
(A) establishing allotments for farms on which cotton was not planted (or regarded as planted under Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) during any of the three calendar years immediately preceding the year for which the allotment is made, on the basis of land, labor, and equipment available for the production of cotton, crop-rotation practices, and the soil and other physical facilities affecting the production of cotton; and
(B) making adjustments of the farm acreage allotments established under paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection so as to establish allotments which are fair and reasonable in relation to the factors set forth in this paragraph and abnormal conditions of production on such farms, or in making adjustments in farm acreage allotments to correct inequities and to prevent hardship: Provided, That not less than 20 per centum of the acreage reserved under this subsection shall, to the extent required, be allotted, upon such basis as the Secretary deems fair and reasonable to farms (other than farms to which an allotment has been made under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection), if any, to which an allotment of not exceeding fifteen acres may be made under other provisions of this subsection.
(4) Any part of the acreage allotted for 1950 to individual farms in any county under the provisions of this section which will not be planted to cotton and which is voluntarily surrendered to the county committee shall be deducted from the allotments to such farms and may be reapportioned by the county committee to other farms in the same county receiving allotments to the extent necessary to provide such farms with the allotments authorized under paragraph (5) of this subsection. If any acreage remains after providing such allotments, it may be apportioned in amounts determined by the county committee to be fair and reasonable to other farms in the same county receiving allotments which the county committee determines are inadequate and not representative in view of their past production of cotton and to new farms in such county. No allotment shall be made, or increased, by reason of this paragraph to an acreage in excess of 40 per centum of the acreage on the farm which is tilled annually or in regular rotation, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Any transfer of allotment under this paragraph shall not operate to reduce the allotment for any subsequent year for the farm from which acreage is transferred, except in accordance with paragraph (1)(B) and the proviso in paragraph (2) of this subsection: Provided, That any part of any farm acreage allotment may be permanently released in writing to the county committee by the owner and operator of the farm and may be reapportioned in the manner set forth above. In any subsequent year, unless hereafter otherwise provided by law, acreage surrendered under this paragraph and reallocated pursuant to applications filed in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (5) of this section shall be credited to the State and county in determining acreage allotments.
(5) Notwithstanding any other provision of law and without reducing any farm acreage allotment determined pursuant to the foregoing provisions of this subsection, each farm acreage allotment for 1950 shall be increased by such amount as may be necessary to provide an allotment equal to the larger of 65 per centum of the average acreage planted to cotton (or regarded as planted to cotton under the provisions of Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) on the farm in 1946, 1947, and 1948, or 45 per centum of the highest acreage planted to cotton (or regarded as planted to cotton under Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress) on the farm in any one of such three years; but no such allotment shall be increased by reason of this provision to an acreage in excess of 40 per centum of the acreage on the farm which is tilled annually or in regular rotation, as determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary. An increase in any 1950 farm acreage allotment shall be made pursuant to this paragraph only upon application in writing by the owner or operator of the farm within such reasonable period of time (in no event less than fifteen days) as may be prescribed by the Secretary. The additional acreage required to be allotted to farms under this paragraph shall be in addition to the county, State, and national acreage allotments and the production from such acreage shall be in addition to the national marketing quota. The additional acreage authorized by this paragraph shall not be taken into account in establishing future State, county, and farm acreage allotments.
(6) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (2) of the subsection, if the county committee recommends such action and the Secretary determines that such action will result in a more equitable distribution of the county allotment among farms in the county, the remainder of the county acreage allotment (after making allotments as provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection) shall be allotted to farms other than farms to which an allotment has been made under paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection so that the allotment to each farm under this paragraph together with the amount of the allotment of such farm under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection shall be a prescribed percentage (which percentage shall be the same for all such farms in the county) of the average acreage planted to cotton on the farm during the three years immediately preceding the year for which such allotment is determined, adjusted as may be necessary for abnormal conditions affecting plantings during such three-year period: Provided, That the county committee may in its discretion limit any farm acreage allotment established under the provisions of this paragraph for any year to an acreage not in excess of 50 per centum of the cropland on the farm, as determined pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection: Provided further, That any part of the county acreage allotment not apportioned under this paragraph by reason of the initial application of such 50 per centum limitation shall be added to the county acreage reserve under paragraph (3) of this subsection and shall be available for the purposes specified therein. If the county acreage allotment is apportioned among the farms of the county in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph, the acreage reserved under paragraph (3) of this subsection may be used to make adjustments so as to establish allotments which are fair and reasonable to farms receiving allotments under this paragraph in relation to the factors set forth in paragraph (3) of this subsection.
(7)
(A) In the event that any farm acreage allotment is less than that prescribed by paragraph (1) of this subsection, such acreage allotment shall be increased to the acreage prescribed by said paragraph (1). The additional acreage required to be allotted to farms under this paragraph shall be in addition to the county, State, and national acreage allotments and the production from such acreage shall be in addition to the national marketing quota.
(B) Notwithstanding any other provision of law—
(i) the acreage by which any farm acreage allotment for 1959 or any subsequent crop established under paragraph (1) of this subsection exceeds the acreage which would have been allotted to such farm if its allotment had been computed on the basis of the same percentage factor applied to other farms in the county under paragraph (2), (6), or (8) of this subsection shall not be taken into account in establishing the acreage allotment for such farm for any crop for which acreage is allotted to such farm under paragraph (2), (6), or (8) of this subsection; and acreage shall be allotted under paragraph (2), (6), or (8) of this subsection to farms which did not receive 1958 crop allotments in excess of ten acres if and only if the Secretary determines (after considering the allotments to other farms in the county for such crop compared with their 1958 allotments and other relevant factors) that equity and justice require the allotment of additional acreage to such farm under paragraph (2), (6), or (8) of this subsection,
(ii) the acreage by which any county acreage allotment for 1959 or any subsequent crop is increased from the national or State reserve on the basis of its needs for additional acreage for establishing minimum farm allotments shall not be taken into account in establishing future county acreage allotments, and
(iii) the additional acreage allotted pursuant to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph (7) shall not be taken into account in establishing future State, county, or farm acreage allotments.
 
(8) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of paragraphs (2) and (6) of this subsection, the Secretary shall, if allotments were in effect the preceding year, provide for the county acreage allotment for the 1959 and succeeding crops of cotton, less the acreage reserved under paragraph (3) of this subsection, to be apportioned to farms on which cotton has been planted in any one of the three years immediately preceding the year for which such allotment is determined, on the basis of the farm acreage allotment for the year immediately preceding the year for which such apportionment is made, adjusted as may be necessary (i) for any change in the acreage of cropland available for the production of cotton, or (ii) to meet the requirements of any provision (other than those contained in paragraphs (2) and (6)) with respect to the counting of acreage for history purposes: Provided, That, beginning with allotments established for the 1961 crop of cotton, if the acreage actually planted (or regarded as planted under the Soil Bank Act, the environmental quality incentives program established under chapter 4 of subtitle D of title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 [16 U.S.C. 3839aa et seq.], and the release and reapportionment provisions of subsection (m) (2) of this section) to cotton on the farm in the preceding year was less than 75 per centum of the farm allotment for such year or, in the case of a farm which qualified for price support on the crop produced in such year under section 1444 (b) of this title, 75 per centum of the farm domestic allotment established under section 1350of this title for such year, whichever is smaller, in lieu of using such allotment as the farm base as provided in this paragraph, the base shall be the average of (1) the cotton acreage for the farm for the preceding year as determined for purposes of this proviso and (2) the allotment established for the farm pursuant to the provisions of this subsection for such preceding year; and the 1958 allotment used for establishing the minimum farm allotment under paragraph (1) of this subsection shall be adjusted to the average acreage so determined. The base for a farm shall not be adjusted as provided in this paragraph if the county committee determines that failure to plant at least 75 per centum of the farm allotment was due to conditions beyond the control of producers on the farm. The Secretary shall establish limitations to prevent allocations of allotment to farms not affected by the foregoing proviso, which would be excessive on the basis of the cropland, past cotton acreage, allotments for other commodities, and good soil conservation practices on such farms.
(g) Law and conditions governing establishment of acreage allotments and yields
Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section—
(1) State, county, and farm acreage allotments and yields for cotton shall be established in conformity with section 1344a of this title.
(2) In apportioning the county allotment among the farms within the county, the Secretary, through the local committees, shall take into consideration different conditions within separate administrative areas within a county if any exist, including types, kinds, and productivity of the soil so as to prevent discrimination among the administrative areas of the county.
(h) Repealed. Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, title III, § 378(d), as added Aug. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85–835, title V, § 501, 72 Stat. 996
(i) Excess planting; old and new farm allotment
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any acreage planted to cotton in excess of the farm acreage allotment shall not be taken into account in establishing State, county, and farm acreage allotments. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, beginning with the 1960 crop the planting of cotton on a farm in any of the immediately preceding three years that allotments were in effect but no allotment was established for such farm for any year of such three-year period shall not make the farm eligible for an allotment as an old farm under subsection (f) of this section: Provided, however, That by reason of such planting the farm need not be considered as ineligible for a new farm allotment under subsection (f)(3) of this section.
(j) Availability of records for inspection
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, State and county committees shall make available for inspection by owners or operators of farms receiving cotton acreage allotments all records pertaining to cotton acreage allotments and marketing quotas.
(k) Minimum allotments to States
Notwithstanding any other provision of this section except subsection (g)(1) of this section, there shall be allotted to each State for which an allotment is made under this section not less than the smaller of
(A) four thousand acres or
(B) the highest acreage planted to cotton in any one of the three calendar years immediately preceding the year for which the allotment is made.
(l) Administration of law governing war crops
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary, in administering the provisions of Public Law 12, Seventy-ninth Congress, as it relates to war crops, shall carry out the provisions of such Act in the following manner:
(i) A survey shall be conducted of every farm which had a 1942 cotton acreage allotment, and of such other farms as the Secretary considers necessary in the administration of Public Law 12. This survey shall obtain for each farm the most accurate information possible on (a) the total acreage in cultivation, and (b) the acreage of individual crops planted on each farm in the years 1941, 1945, 1946, and 1947.
(ii) An eligible farm for war-crop credit shall be a farm on which (a) the cotton acreage on the farm in 1945, 1946, or 1947, was reduced below the cotton acreage planted on the farm in 1941; (b) the war-crop acreage on the farm in 1945, 1946, or 1947, was increased above the war-crop acreage on the farm in 1941; and (c) the farm had a cotton acreage allotment in 1942.
(iii) A farm shall be regarded as having planted cotton (in addition to the actual acreage planted to cotton) to the extent of the lesser of (a) the reduction in cotton acreage for each of the years 1945, 1946, and 1947, below the acreage planted to cotton in 1941, or (b) the increase in war crops for each of the years 1945, 1946, and 1947, above that planted to such war crops in 1941. However, the county committee may be given the discretion to adjust such war-crop credit when the county committee determines that the reduction in cotton acreage was not related to an increase in war crops, but the adjustment shall be made only after consultation with the producer.
(iv) The Secretary, using the best information obtainable, and working with and through the State and county committees, shall use whatever means necessary to make an accurate determination of the credits due each individual farm, under Public Law 12.
(v) The total of the war-crop credits due the individual farms in each county shall be credited to the county and the total of the war-crop credits due all of the counties in a State shall be credited to the State.
(vi) The acreage credited to States, counties, and farms for the years 1945, 1946, or 1947, because of war crops, shall be taken into full account in the determination and distribution of cotton acreage allotments on a national, State, county, and farm basis.
(m) Acreage allotments, 1954; increases; apportionments; limitations; unallotted farm acreage; reapportionment of surrendered acreage; extra long staple cotton; reserve acreage
Notwithstanding any other provision of law—
(1) The national acreage allotment established under subsection (a) of this section for the 1954 crop of cotton shall be increased to twenty-one million acres and apportioned to the States in the same manner in which the national acreage allotment heretofore established for 1954 was apportioned to the States. In addition to such increased national acreage allotment, and in order to provide equitable adjustments in 1954 farm acreage allotments,
(A) three hundred and fifteen thousand additional acres shall be prorated as follows: one-half to the States of Arizona, California, and New Mexico, and one-half to the other States (excluding those which receive a minimum allotment under subsection (k) of this section), the proration of each half being made to the States participating therein on the basis of their respective shares of the increased national acreage allotment, and
(B) such additional acreage shall be added as may be required to provide each State a total allotment under subsection (b) of this section and the provisions of this paragraph of not less than 66 per centum of the acreage planted to cotton in the State in 1952. The additional acreage made available to States under clause (B) of the preceding sentence shall not be taken into account in establishing future State acreage allotments. The additional acreage made available to States under the provisions of this paragraph shall be apportioned to counties on the basis of their respective shares of the State acreage allotment heretofore apportioned pursuant to subsection (e) of this section, and the additional acreage shall be apportioned to farms pursuant to the provisions of subsection (f) of this section: Provided, That, if the county committee determines that such action will result in a more equitable distribution of the additional county allotment among farms in the county, the additional acreage shall be apportioned by the county committee to farms so as to provide each farm with an allotment equal to the larger of 65 per centum of the average acreage planted to cotton on the farm in 1951, 1952, and 1953 (as determined by the county committee in establishing allotments under subsection (f) of this section) or 40 per centum of the highest acreage planted to cotton on the farm in any one of such three years as so determined: Provided, That the State committee in each State shall limit such increase based on the system of farming, soil, crop-rotation practices, and other physical factors affecting production in such State, to an acreage not in excess of 50 per centum of the cropland on the farm, as determined under regulations heretofore prescribed by the Secretary. If the additional acreage is insufficient to meet the total of the farm increases so computed, such farm increases shall be reduced pro rata to the additional acreage available to the county; if the additional acreage available to the county is in excess of the total of the farm increases so computed the acreage remaining after making such increases shall be allotted to farms pursuant to the provisions of subsection (f)(3) of this section. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, if the State committee determines that such action will result in a more equitable distribution of the additional acreage made available to the State under this paragraph it shall apportion such additional allotment directly to farms so as to provide each farm with an allotment equal to the larger of 65 per centum of the average acreage planted to cotton on the farm in 1951, 1952, and 1953 (as determined by the county committee in establishing allotments under subsection (f) of this section) or 40 per centum of the highest acreage planted to cotton on the farm in any one of such three years as so determined: Provided, That the State committee in each State shall limit such increase based on the system of farming, soil, crop-rotation practices, and other physical factors affecting production in such State, to an acreage not in excess of 50 per centum of the cropland on the farm, as determined under regulations heretofore prescribed by the Secretary: Provided, That if the State total of the farm increases so computed exceeds the additional acreage made available to the State under this paragraph, such farm increases shall be reduced pro rata to the additional acreage available to the State. Any acreage unallotted to farms because of the limitations contained in the preceding sentence shall be apportioned by the State committee to counties on the basis of past acreages planted to cotton and shall be used by county committees for adjustments in farm allotments on the basis of one or more of the following: The past acreage of cotton on the farm, the percentage of cropland heretofore determined under subsection (f)(2) of this section, and the factors enumerated in subsection (f)(3) of this section. Before apportioning such unallotted acreage to counties as provided in the foregoing sentence, the State committee may, if it determines that such action is required to provide equitable allotments within the State, apportion such unallotted acreage directly to farms to the extent required to provide each farm with the minimum allotment described in subsection (f)(1) of this section. Any part of the county allotment heretofore established for the 1954 crop which was not apportioned to farms because of the limitation contained in the proviso in subsection (f)(2) of this section shall be available to the State committee and used as provided above for apportionment of unallotted acreage to farms. The provisions of this subsection, except paragraph (2) of this subsection, shall not apply to extra long staple cotton covered by section1347 of this title.
(2) Any part of any farm cotton acreage allotment on which cotton will not be planted and which is voluntarily surrendered to the county committee shall be deducted from the allotment to such farm and may be reapportioned by the county committee to other farms in the same county receiving allotments in amounts determined by the county committee to be fair and reasonable on the basis of past acreage of cotton land, labor, equipment available for the production of cotton, crop rotation practices, and soil and other physical facilities affecting the production of cotton. If all of the allotted acreage voluntarily surrendered is not needed in the county, the county committee may surrender the excess acreage to the State committee to be used for the same purposes as the State acreage reserve under subsection (e) of this section. Any allotment released under this provision shall be regarded for the purposes of establishing future allotments as having been planted on the farm and in the county where the release was made rather than on the farm and in the county to which the allotment was transferred, except that this shall not operate to make the farm from which the allotment was transferred eligible for an allotment as having cotton planted thereon during the three-year base period: Provided, That notwithstanding any other provisions of law, any part of any farm acreage allotment may be permanently released in writing to the county committee by the owner and operator of the farm, and reapportioned as provided herein. Acreage released under this paragraph shall be credited to the State in determining future allotments. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply also to extra long staple cotton covered by section 1347 of this title.
(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or other provision of law, the acreage allotted to any State for 1954 under the provisions of subsection (b) of this section and the provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection which is less than one hundred thousand acres but more than thirty thousand acres shall be increased by an acreage equal to 15 per centum of the acreage allotted to it prior to January 30, 1954. Such acreage shall be used by the State committee as a reserve to make equitable adjustments in 1954 farm acreage allotments on the basis of land, labor, equipment available for the production of cotton, crop-rotation practices, past acreages of cotton, soil, and other physical factors affecting the production of cotton.
(n) Transfer of farm cotton acreage allotments in case of natural disasters; eligibility for allotment
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, if the Secretary determines for any year that because of a natural disaster a portion of the farm cotton acreage allotments in a county cannot be timely planted or replanted in such year, he may authorize for such year the transfer of all or a part of the cotton acreage allotment for any farm in the county so affected to another farm in the county or in an adjoining county on which one or more of the producers on the farm from which the transfer is to be made will be engaged in the production of cotton and will share in the proceeds thereof, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe. Any farm allotment transferred under this paragraph shall be deemed to be released acreage for purposes of acreage history credits under subsections (f)(8) and (m)(2) of this section, and section 1377 of this title: Provided, That, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (m)(2) of this section, the transfer of any farm allotment under this subsection for any year shall operate to make the farm from which the allotment was transferred eligible for an allotment as having cotton planted thereon during the three-year base period.
 
§ 1344a. Exclusion of 1949 acreage in computation of future allotments
Notwithstanding the provisions of subchapter III of this chapter, or of any other law, State, county, and farm acreage allotments and yields for cotton for any year after 1949 shall be computed without regard to yields or to the acreage planted to cotton in 1949.
 
§ 1344b. Sale, lease, or transfer of cotton acreage allotments
(a) Authority for calendar years 1966 through 1970; transfer periods
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary, if he determines that it will not impair the effective operation of the program involved,
(1) may permit the owner and operator of any farm for which a cotton acreage allotment is established to sell or lease all or any part or the right to all or any part of such allotment (excluding that part of the allotment which the Secretary determines was apportioned to the farm from the national acreage reserve) to any other owner or operator of a farm for transfer to such farm;
(2) may permit the owner of a farm to transfer all or any part of such allotment to any other farm owned or controlled by him; Provided, That the authority granted under this section may be exercised for the calendar years 1966 through 1970, but all transfers hereunder shall be for such period of years as the parties thereto may agree.
(b) Requisite conditions for transfer of acreage allotments
Transfers under this section shall be subject to the following conditions:
(i) no allotment shall be transferred to a farm in another State or to a person for use in another State;
(ii) no farm allotment may be sold or leased for transfer to a farm in another county unless the producers of cotton in the county from which transfer is being made have voted in a referendum within three years of the date of such transfer, by a two-thirds majority of the producers participating in such referendum, to permit the transfer of allotments to farms outside the county, which referendum, insofar as practicable, shall be held in conjunction with the marketing quota referendum for the commodity;
(iii) no transfer of an allotment from a farm subject to a mortgage or other lien shall be permitted unless the transfer is agreed to by the lienholder;
(iv) no sale of a farm allotment shall be permitted if any sale of cotton allotment to the same farm has been made within the three immediately preceding crop years;
(v) the total cotton allotment for any farm to which allotment is transferred by sale or lease shall not exceed the farm acreage allotment (excluding reapportioned acreage) established for such farm for 1965 by more than one hundred acres;
(vi) no cotton in excess of the remaining acreage allotment on the farm shall be planted on any farm from which the allotment (or part of an allotment) is sold for a period of five years following such sale, nor shall any cotton in excess of the remaining acreage allotment on the farm be planted on any farm from which the allotment (or part of an allotment) is leased during the period of such lease, and the producer on such farm shall so agree as a condition precedent to the Secretary’s approval of any such sale or lease; and
(vii) no transfer of allotment shall be effective until a record thereof is filed with the county committee of the county to which such transfer is made and such committee determines that the transfer complies with the provisions of this section. Such record may be filed with such committee only during the period beginning June 1 and ending December 31.
(c) Extent of estate transferred
The transfer of an allotment shall have the effect of transferring also the acreage history, farm base, and marketing quota attributable to such allotment and if the transfer is made prior to the determination of the allotment for any year the transfer shall include the right of the owner or operator to have an allotment determined for the farm for such year: Provided, That in the case of a transfer by lease, the amount of the allotment shall be considered for purposes of determining allotments after the expiration of the lease to have been planted on the farm from which such allotment is transferred.
(d) Period of ineligibility of land for new allotment
The land in the farm from which the entire cotton allotment and acreage history have been transferred shall not be eligible for a new farm cotton allotment during the five years following the year in which such transfer is made.
(e) Transfer of allotments established under minimum allotment provisions
The transfer of a portion of a farm allotment which was established under minimum farm allotment provisions for cotton or which operates to bring the farm within the minimum farm allotment provision for cotton shall cause the minimum farm allotment or base to be reduced to an amount equal to the allotment remaining on the farm after such transfer.
(f) Rules and regulations
The Secretary shall prescribe regulations for the administration of this section, which shall include provisions for adjusting the size of the allotment transferred if the farm to which the allotment is transferred has a substantially higher yield per acre and such other terms and conditions as he deems necessary.
(g) Adjustment upon transfer of land covered by conservation reserve contract
If the sale or lease occurs during a period in which the farm is covered by a conservation reserve contract, cropland conversion agreement, cropland adjustment agreement, or other similar land utilization agreement, the rates of payment provided for in the contract or agreement of the farm from which the transfer is made shall be subject to an appropriate adjustment, but no adjustment shall be made in the contract or agreement of the farm to which the allotment is transferred.
(h) Exchange of cotton acreage allotments for rice acreage allotments
The Secretary shall by regulations authorize the exchange between farms in the same county, or between farms in adjoining counties within a State, of cotton acreage allotment for rice acreage allotment. Any such exchange shall be made on the basis of application filed with the county committee by the owners and operators of the farms, and the transfer of allotment between the farms shall include transfer of the related acreage history for the commodity. The exchange shall be acre for acre or on such other basis as the Secretary determines is fair and reasonable, taking into consideration the comparative productivity of the soil for the farms involved and other relevant factors. No farm from which the entire cotton or rice allotment has been transferred shall be eligible for an allotment of cotton or rice as a new farm within a period of five crop years after the date of such exchange.
(i) Applicability to cotton restricted to upland cotton
The provisions of this section relating to cotton shall apply only to upland cotton.
 
§ 1345. Farm marketing quotas; farm marketing excess
The farm marketing quota for any crop of cotton shall be the actual production of the acreage planted to cotton on the farm less the farm marketing excess. The farm marketing excess shall be the normal production of that acreage planted to cotton on the farm which is in excess of the farm acreage allotment: Provided, That such farm marketing excess shall not be larger than the amount by which the actual production of cotton on the farm exceeds the normal production of the farm acreage allotment, if the producer establishes such actual production to the satisfaction of the Secretary.
 
§ 1346. Penalties
(a) Whenever farm marketing quotas are in effect with respect to any crop of cotton, the producer shall be subject to a penalty on the farm marketing excess at a rate per pound equal to 50 per centum of the parity price per pound for cotton as of June 15 of the calendar year in which such crop is produced.
(b) The farm marketing excess of cotton shall be regarded as available for marketing and the amount of penalty shall be computed upon the normal production of the acreage on the farm planted to cotton in excess of the farm acreage allotment. If a downward adjustment in the amount of the farm marketing excess is made pursuant to the proviso in section 1345 of this title, the difference between the amount of the penalty computed upon the farm marketing excess before such adjustment and as computed upon the adjusted farm marketing excess shall be returned to or allowed the producer.
(c) The person liable for payment or collection of the penalty shall be liable also for interest thereon at the rate of 6 per centum per annum from the date the penalty becomes due until the date of payment of such penalty.
(d) Until the penalty on the farm marketing excess is paid, all cotton produced on the farm and marketed by the producer shall be subject to the penalty provided by this section and a lien on the entire crop of cotton produced on the farm shall be in effect in favor of the United States.
(e) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, for the 1966 through 1970 crops of upland cotton, if the farm operator elects to forgo price support for any such crop of cotton by applying to the county committee of the county in which the farm is located for additional acreage under this subsection, he may plant an acreage not in excess of the farm acreage allotment established under section 1344 of this title plus the acreage apportioned to the farm from the national export market acreage reserve, and all cotton of such crop produced on the farm may be marketed for export free of any penalty under this section: Provided, That the foregoing shall be applicable only to farms which had upland cotton allotments for 1965 and are operated by the same operator as in 1965 or by his heir.
For the 1966 crop the national export market acreage reserve shall be 250,000 acres. For each subsequent crop—

 

 
   
If the carryover at the end of the marketing year for the preceding crop is estimated to be less than the carryover at the beginning of such marketing year by— The national export market acreage reserve shall be—
At least 1,000,000 bales 250,000 acres.
At least 750,000 bales, but not as much as 1,000,000 bales 187,500 acres.
At least 500,000 bales, but not as much as 750,000 bales 125,000 acres.
At least 250,000 bales, but not as much as 500,000 bales 62,500 acres.
Less than 250,000 bales None.

 

 
The national export market acreage reserve shall be apportioned to farms by the Secretary on the basis of the applications therefor. No application shall be accepted for a greater acreage than is available on the farm for the production of upland cotton. After apportionments are thus made to farms, the Secretary shall provide farm operators a reasonable time in which to cancel their applications (and agreements to forgo price support) and surrender to the Secretary through the county committee the export market acreage assigned to the farm. Acreage so surrendered shall be available for reassignment by the Secretary to other eligible farms to which export market acreage has been apportioned on the basis of the applications remaining outstanding. The operator of any farm who elects to forgo price support for any such crop under this subsection shall not be eligible for price support on cotton of such crop produced on any other farm in which he has a controlling or substantial interest as determined by the Secretary. Acreage planted to cotton in excess of the farm acreage allotment established under section 1344 of this title shall not be taken into account in establishing future State, county, and farm acreage allotments. The operator of any farm to which export market acreage is apportioned, or the purchasers of cotton produced on such farm, shall, under regulations issued by the Secretary, furnish a bond or other undertaking prescribed by the Secretary providing for the exportation, without benefit of any Government cotton export subsidy and within such time as the Secretary may specify, of all cotton produced on such farm for such year. The bond or other undertaking given pursuant to this subsection shall provide that, upon failure to comply with the terms and conditions thereof, the person furnishing such bond or other undertaking shall be liable for liquidated damages in an amount which the Secretary determines and specifies in such undertaking will approximate the amount payable on excess cotton under subsection (a) of this section. The Secretary may, in lieu of the furnishing of a bond or other undertaking, provide for the payment of an amount equal to that which would be payable as liquidated damages under such bond or other undertaking. If such bond or other undertaking is not furnished, or if payment in lieu thereof is not made as provided herein, at such time and in the manner required by regulations of the Secretary, or if the acreage planted to cotton on the farm exceeds the sum of the farm acreage allotment established under section 1344 of this title and the acreage apportioned to the farm from the national export market acreage reserve, the acreage planted to cotton in excess of the farm acreage allotment established under section 1344 of this title shall be regarded as excess acreage for purposes of this section and section 1345 of this title. Amounts collected by the Secretary under this subsection shall be remitted to the Commodity Credit Corporation.
 
§ 1347. Repealed.
 
§ 1348. Payments in kind to equalize cost of cotton to domestic and foreign users; rules and regulations; termination date; persons eligible; amount; terms and conditions; raw cotton in inventory
In order to maintain and expand domestic consumption of upland cotton produced in the United States and to prevent discrimination against the domestic users of such cotton, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Commodity Credit Corporation, under such rules and regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, is authorized and directed for the period beginning with April 11, 1964 and ending July 31, 1966, to make payments through the issuance of payment-in-kind certificates to persons other than producers in such amounts and subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines will eliminate inequities due to differences in the cost of raw cotton between domestic and foreign users of such cotton, including such payments as may be necessary to make raw cotton in inventory on April 11, 1964 available for consumption at prices consistent with the purposes of this section: Provided, That for the period beginning August 1 of the marketing year for the first crop for which price support is made available under section 1444 (b) of this title, and ending July 31, 1966, such payments shall be made in an amount which will make upland cotton produced in the United States available for domestic use at a price which is not in excess of the price at which such cotton is made available for export. The Secretary may extend the period for performance of obligations incurred in connection with payments made for the period ending July 31, 1966, or may make payments on raw cotton in inventory on July 31, 1966, at the rate in effect on such date. No payments shall be made hereunder with respect to 1966 crop cotton.
 
§ 1349. Export market acreage
(a) Supplementary allotments for 1964 and 1965; acreage limitation; apportionment among States and farms; “export market acreage” on any farm; farm acreage allotment for farms with export acreage; additional allotment; establishment of future allotments without regard to export acreage; exclusion of extra-long-staple cotton and farms receiving additional price support for 1964 and 1965
The acreage allotment established under the provisions of section 1344 of this title for each farm for the 1964 crop may be supplemented by the Secretary by an acreage equal to such percentage, but not more than 10 per centum, of such acreage allotment as he determines will not increase the carryover of upland cotton at the beginning of the marketing year for the next succeeding crop above one million bales less than the carryover on the same date one year earlier, if the carryover on such earlier date exceeds eight million bales. For the 1965 crop, the Secretary may, after such hearing and investigation as he finds necessary, announce an export market acreage which he finds will not increase the carryover of upland cotton at the beginning of the marketing year for the next succeeding crop above one million bales less than the carryover on the same date one year earlier, if the carryover on such earlier date exceeds eight million bales. Such export market acreage shall be apportioned to the States on the basis of the State acreage allotments established under section 1344 of this title and apportioned by the States to farms receiving allotments under section 1344 of this title, pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary, after considering applications for such acreage filed with the county committee of the county in which the farm is located. The “export market acreage” on any farm shall be the number of acres, not exceeding the maximum export market acreage for the farm established pursuant to this subsection, by which the acreage planted to cotton on the farm exceeds the farm acreage allotment. For purposes of sections 1345 and 1374 of this title and the provisions of any law requiring compliance with a farm acreage allotment as a condition of eligibility for price support or payments under any farm program, the farm acreage allotment for farms with export market acreage shall be the sum of the farm acreage allotment established under section 1344 of this title and the maximum export market acreage. Export market acreage shall be in addition to the county, State, and National acreage allotments and shall not be taken into account in establishing future State, county, and farm acreage allotments. The provisions of this section shall not apply to extra-long-staple cotton or to any farm which receives price support under section 1444 (b)of this title.
(b) Bond, other undertaking, and lieu payments for exportation without subsidy and within specified period; terms and conditions; liquidated damages; farm acreage allotment upon noncompliance with conditions; remissions to CCC for defraying costs of encouraging export sales of cotton
The producers on any farm on which there is export market acreage or the purchasers of cotton produced thereon shall, under regulations issued by the Secretary, furnish a bond or other undertaking prescribed by the Secretary providing for the exportation, without benefit of any Government cotton export subsidy and within such period of time as the Secretary may specify, of a quantity of cotton produced on the farm equal to the average yield for the farm multiplied by the export market acreage as determined pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary. The bond or other undertaking given pursuant to this section shall provide that, upon failure to comply with the terms and conditions thereof, the person furnishing such bond or other undertaking shall be liable for liquidated damages in an amount which the Secretary determines and specifies in such undertaking will approximate the amount payable on excess cotton under section 1346 (a) of this title. The Secretary may, in lieu of the furnishing of a bond or other undertaking, provide for the payment of an amount equal to that which would be payable as liquidated damages under such bond or other undertaking. If such bond or other undertaking is not furnished, or if payment in lieu thereof is not made as provided herein, at such time and in the manner required by regulations of the Secretary, or if the acreage planted to cotton on the farm exceeds the farm acreage allotment established under the provisions of section 1344 of this title by more than the maximum export market acreage, the farm acreage allotment shall be the acreage so established under section 1344 of this title. Amounts collected by the Secretary under this section shall be remitted to the Commodity Credit Corporation and used by the Corporation to defray costs of encouraging export sales of cotton under section 1853 [1] of this title.
 
§ 1350. National base acreage allotment
(a) Establishment
The Secretary shall establish for each of the 1971 through 1977 crops of upland cotton a national base acreage allotment. Such national base acreage allotment shall be announced not later than November 15 of the calendar year preceding the year for which the national base acreage allotment is to be effective. The national base acreage allotment for any crop of cotton shall be the number of acres which the Secretary determines on the basis of the expected national yield will produce an amount of cotton equal to the estimated domestic consumption of cotton (standard bales of four hundred and eighty pounds net weight) for the marketing year beginning in the year in which the crop is to be produced, plus not to exceed 25 per centum thereof if the Secretary, taking into consideration other actions he may take under the Agricultural Act of 1970, determines that such additional amount is necessary to provide for a production which will equal the national cotton production goal, except that such national base acreage allotment shall be eleven million five hundred thousand acres for the 1971 crop and in the case of the 1972 through 1977 crops shall be in such amount as the Secretary determines necessary to maintain adequate supplies. The national base acreage allotment for the 1974 through 1977 crops shall not be less than eleven million acres.
(b) Apportionment to States
The national base acreage allotment for each crop of upland cotton shall be apportioned by the Secretary to the States on the basis of the acreage planted (including acreage regarded as having been planted) to upland cotton within the farm acreage allotment or the farm base acreage allotment, whichever is in effect, during the five calendar years immediately preceding the calendar year in which the national cotton production goal is proclaimed, with adjustments for abnormal weather conditions or other natural disaster during such period.
(c) Apportionment to counties
The State base acreage allotment for each crop of upland cotton shall be apportioned to counties on the same basis as to years and conditions as is applicable to the State under subsection (b) of this section: Provided, That the State committee may reserve not to exceed 2 per centum of its State acreage allotment which shall be used to make adjustments in county allotments for trends in acreage, for counties adversely affected by abnormal conditions affecting plantings, or for small or new farms, or to correct inequities in farm allotments and to prevent hardships.
(d) Adjustment of apportionment bases for counties
The Secretary shall adjust the apportionment base for each county as may be necessary because of transfers of allotments across county lines.
(e) Apportionment to farms
(1) The county base acreage allotment for the 1971 crop shall be apportioned to old cotton farms in the county on the basis of the domestic acreage allotment established for the farm for the 1970 crop. For the 1972 and each subsequent crop of upland cotton the county base acreage allotment shall be apportioned to old cotton farms in the county on the basis of the farm base acreage allotment established for such farm for the preceding year. The county committee may reserve not in excess of 10 per centum of the county allotment which, in addition to the acreage made available under the proviso in subsection (c) of this section, shall be used for
(A) establishing allotments for farms on which cotton was not planted (or regarded as planted) during any of the three calendar years immediately preceding the year for which the allotment is made, on the basis of land, labor, and equipment available for the production of cotton, crop-rotation practices, and the soil and other physical facilities affecting the production of cotton; and
(B) making adjustments of the farm allotments established under this paragraph so as to establish allotments which are fair and reasonable in relation to the factors set forth in this paragraph and abnormal conditions of production on such farms, or in making adjustments in farm allotments to correct inequities and to prevent hardships. No part of such reserve shall be apportioned to a farm to reflect new cropland brought into production after November 30, 1970.
(2) If for any crop the total acreage of cotton planted on a farm is less than the farm base acreage allotment, the farm base acreage allotment used as a base for the succeeding crop shall be reduced by the percentage by which such planted acreage was less than such farm base acreage allotment, but such reduction shall not exceed 20 per centum of the farm base acreage allotment for the preceding crop. If not less than 90 per centum of the base acreage allotment for the farm is planted to cotton, the farm shall be considered to have an acreage planted to cotton equal to 100 per centum of such allotment. For purposes of this paragraph, an acreage on the farm which the Secretary determines was not planted to cotton because of drought, flood, other natural disaster, or a condition beyond the control of the producer shall be considered to be an acreage planted to cotton. For the purpose of this paragraph, the Secretary shall, in the event producers of wheat or feed grains are permitted to do so, permit producers of cotton to have acreage devoted to soybeans, wheat, feed grains, guar, castor beans, triticale, oats, rye or such other crops as the Secretary may deem appropriate considered as devoted to the production of cotton to such extent and subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines will not impair the effective operation of the cotton or soybean program.
(3) If no acreage is planted to cotton for any three consecutive crop years on any farm which had a farm base acreage allotment for such years, such farm shall lose its base acreage allotment.
(f) Surrender of farm base acreage allotments
Effective for the 1971 through 1977 crops, any part of any farm base acreage allotment on which upland cotton will not be planted and which is voluntarily surrendered to the county committee shall be deducted from the farm base acreage allotment for such farm and may be reapportioned by the county committee to other farms in the same county receiving farm base acreage allotments in amounts determined by the county committee to be fair and reasonable on the basis of past acreage of upland cotton, land, labor, equipment available for the production of upland cotton, crop rotation practices, and soil and other physical facilities affecting the production of upland cotton. If all of the acreage voluntarily surrendered is not needed in the county, the county committee may surrender the excess acreage to the State committee to be used to make adjustments in farm base acreage allotments for other farms in the State adversely affected by abnormal conditions affecting plantings or to correct inequities or to prevent hardship. Any farm base acreage allotment released under this provision shall be regarded for the purpose of establishing future farm base acreage allotments as having been planted on the farm and in the county where the release was made rather than on the farm and in the county to which the allotment was transferred: Provided, That, notwithstanding any other provision of law, any part of any farm base acreage allotment for any crop year may be permanently released in writing to the county committee by the owner and operator of the farm and reapportioned as provided herein. Acreage released under this subsection shall be credited to the State in determining future allotments.
(g) Compliance with set-aside requirements
Any farm receiving any base acreage allotment through release and reapportionment or sale, lease, or transfer shall, as a condition to the right to receive such allotment, comply with the set-aside requirements of section 1444 (e)(4) of this title applicable to such acreage as determined by the Secretary.
(h) Transfer of farm base acreage allotments not planted because of natural disaster or conditions beyond control of producer
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, if the Secretary determines for any year that because of drought, flood, other natural disaster, or a condition beyond the control of the producer a portion of the farm base acreage allotment in a county cannot be timely planted or replanted in such year, he may authorize for such year the transfer of all or a part of such cotton acreage for any farm in the county so affected to another farm in the county or in any other nearby county on which one or more of the producers on the farm from which the transfer is to be made will be engaged in the production of upland cotton and will share in the proceeds thereof, in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe. Any farm base acreage allotment transferred under this subsection shall be regarded as planted to upland cotton on the farm and in the county and State from which transfer is made for purposes of establishing future farm, county and State allotments.
 
§ 1350a. Repealed.
 
 
subpart v—marketing quotas—rice (§§ 1351—1352_to_1356)
 
§ 1351. Omitted
 
§§ 1352 to 1356. Repealed.]
 
 
subpart vi—marketing quotas—peanuts (§ 1357_to_1359a)
 
§§ 1357 to 1359a. Repealed.]
 
 
subpart vii—flexible marketing allotments for sugar (§§ 1359aa—1359ll)
 
§ 1359aa. Definitions
(1) Human consumption
The term “human consumption”, when used in the context of a reference to sugar (whether in the form of sugar, in-process sugar, syrup, molasses, or in some other form) for human consumption, includes sugar for use in human food, beverages, or similar products.
(2) Mainland State
The term “mainland State” means a State other than an offshore State.
(3) Market
(A) In general
The term “market” means to sell or otherwise dispose of in commerce in the United States.
(B) Inclusions
The term “market” includes—
(i) the forfeiture of sugar under the loan program for sugar established under section 7272 of this title;
(ii) with respect to any integrated processor and refiner, the movement of raw cane sugar into the refining process; and
(iii) the sale of sugar for the production of ethanol or other bioenergy product, if the disposition of the sugar is administered by the Secretary under section 8110 of this title.
(C) Marketing year
Forfeited sugar described in subparagraph (B)(i) shall be considered to have been marketed during the crop year for which a loan is made under the loan program described in that subparagraph.
(4) Offshore State
The term “offshore State” means a sugarcane producing State located outside of the continental United States.
(5) State
Notwithstanding section 1301 of this title, the term “State” means—
(A) a State;
(B) the District of Columbia; and
(C) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
(6) United States
The term “United States”, when used in a geographical sense, means all of the States.
 
§ 1359bb. Flexible marketing allotments for sugar
(a) Sugar estimates
(1) In general
Not later than August 1 before the beginning of each of the 2008 through 2012 crop years for sugarcane and sugar beets, the Secretary shall estimate—
(A) the quantity of sugar that will be subject to human consumption in the United States during the crop year;
(B) the quantity of sugar that would provide for reasonable carryover stocks;
(C) the quantity of sugar that will be available from carry-in stocks for human consumption in the United States during the crop year;
(D) the quantity of sugar that will be available from the domestic processing of sugarcane, sugar beets, and in-process beet sugar; and
(E) the quantity of sugars, syrups, and molasses that will be imported for human consumption or to be used for the extraction of sugar for human consumption in the United States during the crop year, whether the articles are under a tariff-rate quota or are in excess or outside of a tariff-rate quota.
(2) Exclusion
The estimates under this subsection shall not apply to sugar imported for the production of polyhydric alcohol or to any sugar refined and reexported in refined form or in products containing sugar.
(3) Reestimates
The Secretary shall make reestimates of sugar consumption, stocks, production, and imports for a crop year as necessary, but not later than the beginning of each of the second through fourth quarters of the crop year.
(b) Sugar allotments
(1) Establishment
By the beginning of each crop year, the Secretary shall establish for that crop year appropriate allotments under section 1359cc of this title for the marketing by processors of sugar processed from sugar cane or sugar beets or in-process beet sugar (whether the sugar beets or in-process beet sugar was produced domestically or imported) at a level that is—
(A) sufficient to maintain raw and refined sugar prices above forfeiture levels so that there will be no forfeitures of sugar to the Commodity Credit Corporation under the loan program for sugar established under section7272 of this title; but
(B) not less than 85 percent of the estimated quantity of sugar for domestic human consumption for the crop year.
(2) Products
The Secretary may include sugar products, the majority content of which is sucrose for human consumption, derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, molasses, or sugar in the allotments established under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines it to be appropriate for purposes of this subpart.
(c) Coverage of allotments
(1) In general
The marketing allotments under this subpart shall apply to the marketing by processors of sugar intended for domestic human consumption that has been processed from sugar cane, sugar beets, or in-process beet sugar, whether such sugar beets or in-process beet sugar was produced domestically or imported.
(2) Exceptions
Consistent with the administration of marketing allotments for each of the 2002 through 2007 crop years, the marketing allotments shall not apply to sugar sold—
(A) to facilitate the exportation of the sugar to a foreign country, except that the exports of sugar shall not be eligible to receive credits under reexport programs for refined sugar or sugar containing products administered by the Secretary;
(B) to enable another processor to fulfill an allocation established for that processor; or
(C) for uses other than domestic human consumption, except for the sale of sugar for the production of ethanol or other bioenergy if the disposition of the sugar is administered by the Secretary under section 8110 of this title.
(3) Requirement
The sale of sugar described in paragraph (2)(B) shall be—
(A) made prior to May 1; and
(B) reported to the Secretary.
(d) Prohibitions
(1) In general
During all or part of any crop year for which marketing allotments have been established, no processor of sugar beets or sugarcane shall market for domestic human consumption a quantity of sugar in excess of the allocation established for the processor, except—
(A) to enable another processor to fulfill an allocation established for that other processor; or
(B) to facilitate the exportation of the sugar.
(2) Civil penalty
Any processor who knowingly violates paragraph (1) shall be liable to the Commodity Credit Corporation for a civil penalty in an amount equal to 3 times the United States market value, at the time of the commission of the violation, of that quantity of sugar involved in the violation.
 
§ 1359cc. Establishment of flexible marketing allotments
(a) In general
The Secretary shall establish flexible marketing allotments for sugar for any crop year in which the allotments are required under section 1359bb (b) of this title in accordance with this section.
(b) Overall allotment quantity
(1) In general
The Secretary shall establish the overall quantity of sugar to be allotted for the crop year (referred to in this subpart as the “overall allotment quantity”) at a level that is—
(A) sufficient to maintain raw and refined sugar prices above forfeiture levels to avoid forfeiture of sugar to the Commodity Credit Corporation; but
(B) not less than a quantity equal to 85 percent of the estimated quantity of sugar for domestic human consumption for the crop year.
(2) Adjustment
Subject to paragraph (1), the Secretary shall adjust the overall allotment quantity to maintain—
(A) raw and refined sugar prices above forfeiture levels to avoid the forfeiture of sugar to the Commodity Credit Corporation; and
(B) adequate supplies of raw and refined sugar in the domestic market.
(c) Marketing allotment for sugar derived from sugar beets and sugar derived from sugarcane
The overall allotment quantity for the crop year shall be allotted between—
(1) sugar derived from sugar beets by establishing a marketing allotment for a crop year at a quantity equal to the product of multiplying the overall allotment quantity for the crop year by 54.35 percent; and
(2) sugar derived from sugarcane by establishing a marketing allotment for a crop year at a quantity equal to the product of multiplying the overall allotment quantity for the crop year by 45.65 percent.
(d) Filling cane sugar and beet sugar allotments
(1) Cane sugar
Each marketing allotment for cane sugar established under this section may only be filled with sugar processed from domestically grown sugarcane.
(2) Beet sugar
Each marketing allotment for beet sugar established under this section may only be filled with sugar domestically processed from sugar beets or in-process beet sugar.
(e) State cane sugar allotments
(1) In general
The allotment for sugar derived from sugarcane shall be further allotted, among the States in the United States in which sugarcane is produced, after a hearing (if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers) and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, in a fair and equitable manner as provided in this subsection and section 1359dd (b)(1)(D) of this title.
(2) Offshore allotment
(A) Collectively
Prior to the allotment of sugar derived from sugarcane to any other State, 325,000 short tons, raw value shall be allotted to the offshore States.
(B) Individually
The collective offshore State allotment provided for under subparagraph (A) shall be further allotted among the offshore States in which sugarcane is produced, after a hearing (if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers) and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, in a fair and equitable manner on the basis of—
(i) past marketings of sugar, based on the average of the 2 highest years of production of raw cane sugar from the 1996 through 2000 crops;
(ii) the ability of processors to market the sugar covered under the allotments for the crop year; and
(iii) past processings of sugar from sugarcane, based on the 3-year average of the 1998 through 2000 crop years.
(3) Mainland allotment
The allotment for sugar derived from sugarcane, less the amount provided for under paragraph (2), shall be allotted among the mainland States in the United States in which sugarcane is produced, after a hearing (if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers) and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, in a fair and equitable manner on the basis of—
(A) past marketings of sugar, based on the average of the 2 highest years of production of raw cane sugar from the 1996 through 2000 crops;
(B) the ability of processors to market the sugar covered under the allotments for the crop year; and
(C) past processings of sugar from sugarcane, based on the 3 crop years with the greatest processings (in the mainland States collectively) during the 1991 through 2000 crop years.
(f) Filling cane sugar allotments
Except as provided in section 1359ee of this title, a State cane sugar allotment established under subsection (e) of this section for a crop year may be filled only with sugar processed from sugarcane grown in the State covered by the allotment.
(g) Adjustment of marketing allotments
(1) Adjustments
(A) In general
Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall, based on reestimates under section 1359bb (a)(3) of this title, adjust upward or downward marketing allotments in a fair and equitable manner, as the Secretary determines appropriate, to reflect changes in estimated sugar consumption, stocks, production, or imports.
(B) Limitation
In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Secretary may not reduce the overall allotment quantity to a quantity of less than 85 percent of the estimated quantity of sugar for domestic human consumption for the crop year.
(2) Allocation to processors
In the case of any increase or decrease in an allotment, each allocation to a processor of the allotment under section 1359dd of this title, and each proportionate share established with respect to the allotment under section1359ff (c) of this title, shall be increased or decreased by the same percentage that the allotment is increased or decreased.
(3) Carry-over of reductions
Whenever a marketing allotment for a crop year is required to be reduced during the crop year under this subsection, if, at the time of the reduction, the quantity of sugar marketed exceeds the processor’s reduced allocation, the allocation of an allotment next established for the processor shall be reduced by the quantity of the excess sugar marketed.
 
§ 1359dd. Allocation of marketing allotments
(a) Allocation to processors
Whenever marketing allotments are established for a crop year under section 1359ccof this title, in order to afford all interested persons an equitable opportunity to market sugar under an allotment, the Secretary shall allocate each such allotment among the processors covered by the allotment.
(b) Hearing and notice
(1) Cane sugar
(A) In general
The Secretary shall make allocations for cane sugar after a hearing, if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers, and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, in such manner and in such quantities as to provide a fair, efficient, and equitable distribution of the allocations under this paragraph. Each such allocation shall be subject to adjustment under section 1359cc (g) of this title.
(B) Multiple processor States
Except as provided in subparagraphs (C) and (D), the Secretary shall allocate the allotment for cane sugar among multiple cane sugar processors in a single State based on—
(i) past marketings of sugar, based on the average of the 2 highest years of production of raw cane sugar from among the 1996 through 2000 crops;
(ii) the ability of processors to market sugar covered by that portion of the allotment allocated for the crop year; and
(iii) past processings of sugar from sugarcane, based on the average of the 3 highest years of production during the 1996 through 2000 crop years.
(C) Talisman processing facility
In the case of allotments under subparagraph (B) attributable to the operations of the Talisman processing facility before May 13, 2002, the Secretary shall allocate the allotment among processors in the State under subparagraph (A) in accordance with the agreements of March 25 and 26, 1999, between the affected processors and the Secretary of the Interior.
(D) Proportionate share States
In the case of States subject to section 1359ff (c) of this title, the Secretary shall allocate the allotment for cane sugar among multiple cane sugar processors in a single State based on—
(i) past marketings of sugar, based on the average of the 2 highest years of production of raw cane sugar from among the 1997 through 2001 crop years;
(ii) the ability of processors to market sugar covered by that portion of the allotments allocated for the crop year; and
(iii) past processings of sugar from sugarcane, based on the average of the 2 highest crop years of crop production during the 1997 through 2001 crop years.
(E) New entrants
(i) In general Notwithstanding subparagraphs (B) and (D), the Secretary, on application of any processor that begins processing sugarcane on or after May 13, 2002, and after a hearing (if requested by the affected sugarcane processors and growers) and on such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, may provide the processor with an allocation that provides a fair, efficient and equitable distribution of the allocations from the allotment for the State in which the processor is located.
(ii) Proportionate share States In the case of proportionate share States, the Secretary shall establish proportionate shares in a quantity sufficient to produce the sugarcane required to satisfy the allocations.
(iii) Limitations The allotment for a new processor under this subparagraph shall not exceed—
(I) in the case of the first crop year of operation of a new processor, 50,000 short tons (raw value); and
(II) in the case of each subsequent crop year of operation of the new processor, a quantity established by the Secretary in accordance with this subparagraph and the criteria described in subparagraph (B) or (D), as applicable.
(iv) New entrant States
(I) In general Notwithstanding subparagraphs (A) and (C) of section1359cc (e)(3) of this title, to accommodate an allocation under clause (i) to a new processor located in a new entrant mainland State, the Secretary shall provide the new entrant mainland State with an allotment.
(II) Effect on other allotments The allotment to any new entrant mainland State shall be subtracted, on a pro rata basis, from the allotments otherwise allotted to each mainland State under section1359cc (e)(3) of this title.
(v) Adverse effects Before providing an initial processor allocation or State allotment to a new entrant processor or a new entrant State under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall take into consideration any adverse effects that the provision of the allocation or allotment may have on existing cane processors and producers in mainland States.
(vi) Ability to market Consistent with section 1359cc of this title and this section, any processor allocation or State allotment made to a new entrant processor or to a new entrant State under this subparagraph shall be provided only after the applicant processor, or the applicable processors in the State, have demonstrated the ability to process, produce, and market (including the transfer or delivery of the raw cane sugar to a refinery for further processing or marketing) raw cane sugar for the crop year for which the allotment is applicable.
(vii) Prohibition Not more than 1 processor allocation provided under this subparagraph may be applicable to any individual sugar processing facility.
(F) Transfer of ownership
If a sugarcane processor is sold or otherwise transferred to another owner or is closed as part of an affiliated corporate group processing consolidation, the Secretary shall transfer the allotment allocation for the processor to the purchaser, new owner, successor in interest, or any remaining processor of an affiliated entity, as applicable, of the processor.
(2) Beet sugar
(A) In general
Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph and sections 1359cc (g),1359ee (b), and 1359ff (b) of this title, the Secretary shall make allocations for beet sugar among beet sugar processors for each crop year that allotments are in effect on the basis of the adjusted weighted average quantity of beet sugar produced by the processors for each of the 1998 through 2000 crop years, as determined under this paragraph.
(B) Quantity
The quantity of an allocation made for a beet sugar processor for a crop year under subparagraph (A) shall bear the same ratio to the quantity of allocations made for all beet sugar processors for the crop year as the adjusted weighted average quantity of beet sugar produced by the processor (as determined under subparagraphs (C) and (D)) bears to the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors (as so determined).
(C) Weighted average quantity
Subject to subparagraph (D), the weighted quantity of beet sugar produced by a beet sugar processor during each of the 1998 through 2000 crop years shall be (as determined by the Secretary)—
(i) in the case of the 1998 crop year, 25 percent of the quantity of beet sugar produced by the processor during the crop year;
(ii) in the case of the 1999 crop year, 35 percent of the quantity of beet sugar produced by the processor during the crop year; and
(iii) in the case of the 2000 crop year, 40 percent of the quantity of beet sugar produced by the processor (including any quantity of sugar received from the Commodity Credit Corporation) during the crop year.
(D) Adjustments
(i) In general The Secretary shall adjust the weighted average quantity of beet sugar produced by a beet sugar processor during the 1998 through 2000 crop years under subparagraph (C) if the Secretary determines that the processor—
(I) during the 1996 through 2000 crop years, opened a sugar beet processing factory;
(II) during the 1998 through 2000 crop years, closed a sugar beet processing factory;
(III) during the 1998 through 2000 crop years, constructed a molasses desugarization facility; or
(IV) during the 1998 through 2000 crop years, suffered substantial quality losses on sugar beets stored during any such crop year.
(ii) Quantity The quantity of beet sugar produced by a beet sugar processor under subparagraph (C) shall be—
(I) in the case of a processor that opened a sugar beet processing factory, increased by 1.25 percent of the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors during the 1998 through 2000 crop years (without consideration of any adjustment under this subparagraph) for each sugar beet processing factory that is opened by the processor;
(II) in the case of a processor that closed a sugar beet processing factory, decreased by 1.25 percent of the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors during the 1998 through 2000 crop years (without consideration of any adjustment under this subparagraph) for each sugar beet processing factory that is closed by the processor;
(III) in the case of a processor that constructed a molasses desugarization facility, increased by 0.25 percent of the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors during the 1998 through 2000 crop years (without consideration of any adjustment under this subparagraph) for each molasses desugarization facility that is constructed by the processor; and
(IV) in the case of a processor that suffered substantial quality losses on stored sugar beets, increased by 1.25 percent of the total of the adjusted weighted average quantities of beet sugar produced by all processors during the 1998 through 2000 crop years (without consideration of any adjustment under this subparagraph).
(E) Permanent termination of operations of a processor
If a processor of beet sugar has been dissolved, liquidated in a bankruptcy proceeding, or otherwise has permanently terminated operations (other than in conjunction with a sale or other disposition of the processor or the assets of the processor), the Secretary shall—
(i) eliminate the allocation of the processor provided under this section; and
(ii) distribute the allocation to other beet sugar processors on a pro rata basis.
(F) Sale of all assets of a processor to another processor
If a processor of beet sugar (or all of the assets of the processor) is sold to another processor of beet sugar, the Secretary shall transfer the allocation of the seller to the buyer unless the allocation has been distributed to other sugar beet processors under subparagraph (E).
(G) Sale of factories of a processor to another processor
(i) Effect of sale Subject to subparagraphs (E) and (F), if 1 or more factories of a processor of beet sugar (but not all of the assets of the processor) are sold to another processor of beet sugar during a crop year, the Secretary shall assign a pro rata portion of the allocation of the seller to the allocation of the buyer to reflect the historical contribution of the production of the sold 1 or more factories to the total allocation of the seller, unless the buyer and the seller have agreed upon the transfer of a different portion of the allocation of the seller, in which case, the Secretary shall transfer that portion agreed upon by the buyer and seller.
(ii) Application of allocation The assignment of the allocation under clause (i) shall apply—
(I) during the remainder of the crop year for which the sale described in clause (i) occurs; and
(II) during each subsequent crop year.
(iii) Use of other factories to fill allocation If the assignment of the allocation under clause (i) to the buyer for the 1 or more purchased factories cannot be filled by the production of the 1 or more purchased factories, the remainder of the allocation may be filled by beet sugar produced by the buyer from other factories of the buyer.
(H) New entrants starting production, reopening, or acquiring an existing factory with production history
(i) Definition of new entrant
(I) In general In this subparagraph, the term “new entrant” means an individual, corporation, or other entity that—
(aa) does not have an allocation of the beet sugar allotment under this subpart;
(bb) is not affiliated with any other individual, corporation, or entity that has an allocation of beet sugar under this subpart (referred to in this clause as a “third party”); and
(cc) will process sugar beets produced by sugar beet growers under contract with the new entrant for the production of sugar at the new or re-opened factory that is the basis for the new entrant allocation.
(II) Affiliation For purposes of subclause (I)(bb), a new entrant and a third party shall be considered to be affiliated if—
(aa) the third party has an ownership interest in the new entrant;
(bb) the new entrant and the third party have owners in common;
(cc) the third party has the ability to exercise control over the new entrant by organizational rights, contractual rights, or any other means;
(dd) the third party has a contractual relationship with the new entrant by which the new entrant will make use of the facilities or assets of the third party; or
(ee) there are any other similar circumstances by which the Secretary determines that the new entrant and the third party are affiliated.
(ii) Allocation for a new entrant that has constructed a new factory or reopened a factory that was not operated since before 1998 If a new entrant constructs a new sugar beet processing factory, or acquires and reopens a sugar beet processing factory that last processed sugar beets prior to the 1998 crop year and there is no allocation currently associated with the factory, the Secretary shall—
(I) assign an allocation for beet sugar to the new entrant that provides a fair and equitable distribution of the allocations for beet sugar so as to enable the new entrant to achieve a factory utilization rate comparable to the factory utilization rates of other similarly-situated processors; and
(II) reduce the allocations for beet sugar of all other processors on a pro rata basis to reflect the allocation to the new entrant.
(iii) Allocation for a new entrant that has acquired an existing factory with a production history
(I) In general If a new entrant acquires an existing factory that has processed sugar beets from the 1998 or subsequent crop year and has a production history, on the mutual agreement of the new entrant and the company currently holding the allocation associated with the factory, the Secretary shall transfer to the new entrant a portion of the allocation of the current allocation holder to reflect the historical contribution of the production of the 1 or more sold factories to the total allocation of the current allocation holder, unless the new entrant and current allocation holder have agreed upon the transfer of a different portion of the allocation of the current allocation holder, in which case, the Secretary shall transfer that portion agreed upon by the new entrant and the current allocation holder.
(II) Prohibition In the absence of a mutual agreement described in subclause (I), the new entrant shall be ineligible for a beet sugar allocation.
(iv) Appeals Any decision made under this subsection may be appealed to the Secretary in accordance with section 1359ii of this title.
 
§ 1359ee. Reassignment of deficits
(a) Estimates of deficits
At any time allotments are in effect under this subpart, the Secretary, from time to time, shall determine whether (in view of then-current inventories of sugar, the estimated production of sugar and expected marketings, and other pertinent factors) any processor of sugarcane will be unable to market the sugar covered by the portion of the State cane sugar allotment allocated to the processor and whether any processor of sugar beets will be unable to market sugar covered by the portion of the beet sugar allotment allocated to the processor.
(b) Reassignment of deficits
(1) Cane sugar
If the Secretary determines that any sugarcane processor who has been allocated a share of a State cane sugar allotment will be unable to market the processor’s allocation of the State’s allotment for the crop year—
(A) the Secretary first shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit to the allocations for other processors within that State, depending on the capacity of each other processor to fill the portion of the deficit to be assigned to it and taking into account the interests of producers served by the processors;
(B) if after the reassignments the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit proportionately to the allotments for other cane sugar States, depending on the capacity of each other State to fill the portion of the deficit to be assigned to it, with the reassigned quantity to each State to be allocated among processors in that State in proportion to the allocations of the processors;
(C) if after the reassignments the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit to the Commodity Credit Corporation and shall sell such quantity of sugar from inventories of the Corporation unless the Secretary determines that such sales would have a significant effect on the price of sugar; and
(D) if after the reassignments and sales, the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the remainder to imports of raw cane sugar.
(2) Beet sugar
If the Secretary determines that a sugar beet processor who has been allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment will be unable to market that allocation—
(A) the Secretary first shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit to the allotments for other sugar beet processors, depending on the capacity of each other processor to fill the portion of the deficit to be assigned to it and taking into account the interests of producers served by the processors;
(B) if after the reassignments the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the estimated quantity of the deficit to the Commodity Credit Corporation and shall sell such quantity of sugar from inventories of the Corporation unless the Secretary determines that such sales would have a significant effect on the price of sugar; and
(C) if after the reassignments and sales, the deficit cannot be completely eliminated, the Secretary shall reassign the remainder to imports of raw cane sugar.
(3) Corresponding increase
The allocation of each processor receiving a reassigned quantity of an allotment under this subsection for a crop year shall be increased to reflect the reassignment.
 
§ 1359ff. Provisions applicable to producers
(a) Processor assurances
(1) In general
If allotments for a crop year are allocated to processors under section 1359dd of this title, the Secretary shall obtain from the processors such assurances as the Secretary considers adequate that the allocation will be shared among producers served by the processor in a fair and equitable manner that adequately reflects producers’ production histories.
(2) Arbitration
(A) In general
Any dispute between a processor and a producer, or group of producers, with respect to the sharing of the allocation to the processor shall be resolved through arbitration by the Secretary on the request of either party.
(B) Period
The arbitration shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be—
(i) commenced not more than 45 days after the request; and
(ii) completed not more than 60 days after the request.
(b) Sugar beet processing facility closures
(1) In general
If a sugar beet processing facility is closed and the sugar beet growers that previously delivered beets to the facility elect to deliver their beets to another processing company, the growers may petition the Secretary to modify allocations under this subpart to allow the delivery.
(2) Increased allocation for processing company
The Secretary may increase the allocation to the processing company to which the growers elect to deliver their sugar beets, with the approval of the processing company, to a level that does not exceed the processing capacity of the processing company, to accommodate the change in deliveries.
(3) Decreased allocation for closed company
The increased allocation shall be deducted from the allocation to the company that owned the processing facility that has been closed and the remaining allocation shall be unaffected.
(4) Timing
The determinations of the Secretary on the issues raised by the petition shall be made within 60 days after the filing of the petition.
(c) Proportionate shares of certain allotments
(1) Definition of seed
(A) In general
In this subsection, the term “seed” means only those varieties of seed that are dedicated to the production of sugarcane from which is produced sugar for human consumption.
(B) Exclusion
The term “seed” does not include seed of a high-fiber cane variety dedicated to other uses, as determined by the Secretary [1]
(2) In general
(A) States affected
In any case in which a State allotment is established under section 1359cc (f)of this title and there are in excess of 250 sugarcane producers in the State (other than Puerto Rico), the Secretary shall make a determination under subparagraph (B).
(B) Determination
The Secretary shall determine, for each State allotment described in subparagraph (A), whether the production of sugarcane, in the absence of proportionate shares, will be greater than the quantity needed to enable processors to fill the allotment and provide a normal carryover inventory of sugar.
(3) Establishment of proportionate shares
If the Secretary determines under paragraph (2) that the quantity of sugar produced from sugarcane produced by producers in the area covered by a State allotment for a crop year will be in excess of the quantity needed to enable processors to fill the allotment for the crop year and provide a normal carryover inventory of sugar, the Secretary shall establish a proportionate share for each sugarcane-producing farm that limits the acreage of sugarcane that may be harvested on the farm for sugar or seed during the crop year the allotment is in effect as provided in this subsection. Each such proportionate share shall be subject to adjustment under paragraph (8) and section 1359cc (g) of this title.
(4) Method of determining
For purposes of determining proportionate shares for any crop of sugarcane:
(A) The Secretary shall establish the State’s per-acre yield goal for a crop of sugarcane at a level (not less than the average per-acre yield in the State for the 2 highest years from among the 1999, 2000, and 2001 crop years, as determined by the Secretary) that will ensure an adequate net return per pound to producers in the State, taking into consideration any available production research data that the Secretary considers relevant.
(B) The Secretary shall adjust the per-acre yield goal by the average recovery rate of sugar produced from sugarcane by processors in the State.
(C) The Secretary shall convert the State allotment for the crop year involved into a State acreage allotment for the crop by dividing the State allotment by the per-acre yield goal for the State, as established under subparagraph (A) and as further adjusted under subparagraph (B).
(D) The Secretary shall establish a uniform reduction percentage for the crop by dividing the State acreage allotment, as determined for the crop under subparagraph (C), by the sum of all adjusted acreage bases in the State, as determined by the Secretary.
(E) The uniform reduction percentage for the crop, as determined under subparagraph (D), shall be applied to the acreage base for each sugarcane-producing farm in the State to determine the farm’s proportionate share of sugarcane acreage that may be harvested for sugar or seed.
(5) Acreage base
For purposes of this subsection, the acreage base for each sugarcane-producing farm shall be determined by the Secretary, as follows:
(A) The acreage base for any farm shall be the number of acres that is equal to the average of the acreage planted and considered planted for harvest for sugar or seed on the farm in the 2 highest of the 1999, 2000, and 2001 crop years.
(B) Acreage planted to sugarcane that producers on a farm were unable to harvest to sugarcane for sugar or seed because of drought, flood, other natural disaster, or other condition beyond the control of the producers may be considered as harvested for the production of sugar or seed for purposes of this paragraph.
(6) Violation
(A) In general
Whenever proportionate shares are in effect in a State for a crop of sugarcane, producers on a farm shall not knowingly harvest, or allow to be harvested, for sugar or seed an acreage of sugarcane in excess of the farm’s proportionate share for the crop year, or otherwise violate proportionate share regulations issued by the Secretary under section 1359hh (a) of this title.
(B) Determination of violation
No producer shall be considered to have violated subparagraph (A) unless the processor of the sugarcane harvested by such producer from acreage in excess of the proportionate share of the farm markets an amount of sugar that exceeds the allocation of such processor for a crop year.
(C) Civil penalty
Any producer on a farm who violates subparagraph (A) by knowingly harvesting, or allowing to be harvested, an acreage of sugarcane for sugar in excess of the farm’s proportionate share shall be liable to the Commodity Credit Corporation for a civil penalty equal to one and one-half times the United States market value of the quantity of sugar that is marketed by the processor of such sugarcane in excess of the allocation of such processor for the crop year. The Secretary shall prorate penalties imposed under this subparagraph in a fair and equitable manner among all the producers of sugarcane harvested from excess acreage that is acquired by such processor.
(7) Waiver
Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraph, the Secretary may authorize the county and State committees established under section 590h (b) of title 16 to waive or modify deadlines and other proportionate share requirements in cases in which lateness or failure to meet the other requirements does not affect adversely the operation of proportionate shares.
(8) Adjustments
Whenever the Secretary determines that, because of a natural disaster or other condition beyond the control of producers that adversely affects a crop of sugarcane subject to proportionate shares, the amount of sugar from sugarcane produced by producers subject to the proportionate shares will not be sufficient to enable processors in the State to meet the State’s cane sugar allotment and provide a normal carryover inventory of sugar, the Secretary may uniformly allow producers to harvest an amount of sugarcane in excess of their proportionate share, or suspend proportionate shares entirely, as necessary to enable processors to meet the State allotment and provide a normal carryover inventory of sugar.
 
§ 1359gg. Special rules
(a) Transfer of acreage base history
(1) Transfer authorized
For the purpose of establishing proportionate shares for sugarcane farms under section 1359ff (c) of this title, the Secretary, on application of any producer, with the written consent of all owners of a farm, may transfer the acreage base history of the farm to any other parcels of land of the applicant.
(2) Converted acreage base
(A) In general
Sugarcane acreage base established under section 1359ff (c) of this title that has been or is converted to nonagricultural use on or after May 13, 2002, may be transferred to other land suitable for the production of sugarcane that can be delivered to a processor in a proportionate share State in accordance with this paragraph.
(B) Notification
Not later than 90 days after the Secretary becomes aware of a conversion of any sugarcane acreage base to a nonagricultural use, the Secretary shall notify the 1 or more affected landowners of the transferability of the applicable sugarcane acreage base.
(C) Initial transfer period
The owner of the base attributable to the acreage at the time of the conversion shall be afforded 90 days from the date of the receipt of the notification under subparagraph (B) to transfer the base to 1 or more farms owned by the owner.
(D) Grower of record
If a transfer under subparagraph (C) cannot be accomplished during the period specified in that subparagraph, the grower of record with regard to the acreage base on the date on which the acreage was converted to nonagricultural use shall—
(i) be notified; and
(ii) have 90 days from the date of the receipt of the notification to transfer the base to 1 or more farms operated by the grower.
(E) Pool distribution
(i) In general If transfers under subparagraphs (B) and (C) cannot be accomplished during the periods specified in those subparagraphs, the county committee of the Farm Service Agency for the applicable county shall place the acreage base in a pool for possible assignment to other farms.
(ii) Acceptance of requests After providing reasonable notice to farm owners, operators, and growers of record in the county, the county committee shall accept requests from owners, operators, and growers of record in the county.
(iii) Assignment The county committee shall assign the acreage base to other farms in the county that are eligible and capable of accepting the acreage base, based on a random drawing from among the requests received under clause (ii).
(F) Statewide reallocation
(i) In general Any acreage base remaining unassigned after the transfers and processes described in subparagraphs (A) through (E) shall be made available to the State committee of the Farm Service Agency for allocation among the remaining county committees in the State representing counties with farms eligible for assignment of the base, based on a random drawing.
(ii) Allocation Any county committee receiving acreage base under this subparagraph shall allocate the acreage base to eligible farms using the process described in subparagraph (E).
(G) Status of reassigned base
After acreage base has been reassigned in accordance with this subparagraph, the acreage base shall—
(i) remain on the farm; and
(ii) be subject to the transfer provisions of paragraph (1).
(b) Preservation of acreage base history
If for reasons beyond the control of a producer on a farm, the producer is unable to harvest an acreage of sugarcane for sugar or seed with respect to all or a portion of the proportionate share established for the farm under section 1359ff (c) of this title, the Secretary, on the application of the producer and with the written consent of all owners of the farm, may preserve for a period of not more than 5 consecutive years the acreage base history of the farm to the extent of the proportionate share involved. The Secretary may permit the proportionate share to be redistributed to other farms, but no acreage base history for purposes of establishing acreage bases shall accrue to the other farms by virtue of the redistribution of the proportionate share.
(c) Revisions of allocations and proportionate shares
The Secretary, after such notice as the Secretary by regulation may prescribe, may revise or amend any allocation of a marketing allotment under section 1359dd of this title, or any proportionate share established or adjusted for a farm under section1359ff (c) of this title, on the same basis as the initial allocation or proportionate share was required to be established.
(d) Transfers of mill allocations
(1) Transfer authorized
A producer in a proportionate share State, upon written consent from all affected crop-share owners (or the representative of the affected crop-share owners) of a farm may deliver sugarcane to another processing company if the additional delivery, when combined with such other processing company’s existing deliveries, does not exceed the processing capacity of the company.
(2) Allocation adjustment
Notwithstanding section 1359dd of this title, the Secretary shall adjust the allocations of each of such processing companies affected by a transfer under paragraph (1) to reflect the change in deliveries, based on—
(A) the number of acres of sugarcane base being transferred; and
(B) the pro rata amount of allocation at the processing company holding the applicable allocation that equals the contribution of the grower to allocation of the processing company for the sugarcane acreage base being transferred.
 
§ 1359hh. Regulations; violations; publication of Secretary’s determinations; jurisdiction of the courts; United States attorneys
(a) Regulations
The Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation, as appropriate, shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the authority vested in the Secretary in administering this subpart.
(b) Violation
Any person knowingly violating any regulation of the Secretary issued under subsection (a) of this section shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each violation.
(c) Publication in Federal Register
Each determination issued by the Secretary to establish, adjust, or suspend allotments under this subpart shall be promptly published in the Federal Register and shall be accompanied by a statement of the reasons for the determination.
(d) Jurisdiction of courts; United States attorneys
(1) Jurisdiction of courts
The several district courts of the United States are vested with jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to prevent and restrain any person from violating, this subpart or any regulation issued thereunder.
(2) United States attorneys
Whenever the Secretary shall so request, it shall be the duty of the several United States attorneys, in their respective districts, to institute proceedings to enforce the remedies and to collect the penalties provided for in this subpart. The Secretary may elect not to refer to a United States attorney any violation of this subpart or regulation when the Secretary determines that the administration and enforcement of this subpart would be adequately served by written notice or warning to any person committing the violation.
(e) Nonexclusivity of remedies
The remedies and penalties provided for in this subpart shall be in addition to, and not exclusive of, any remedies or penalties existing at law or in equity.
 
§ 1359ii. Appeals
(a) In general
An appeal may be taken to the Secretary from any decision under section 1359dd of this title establishing allocations of marketing allotments, or under section 1359ff or1359gg (d) of this title, by any person adversely affected by reason of any such decision.
(b) Procedure
(1) Notice of appeal
Any such appeal shall be taken by filing with the Secretary, within 20 days after the decision complained of is effective, notice in writing of the appeal and a statement of the reasons therefor. Unless a later date is specified by the Secretary as part of the Secretary’s decision, the decision complained of shall be considered to be effective as of the date on which announcement of the decision is made. The Secretary shall deliver a copy of any notice of appeal to each person shown by the records of the Secretary to be adversely affected by reason of the decision appealed, and shall at all times thereafter permit any such person to inspect and make copies of appellant’s reasons for the appeal and shall on application permit the person to intervene in the appeal.
(2) Hearing
The Secretary shall provide each appellant an opportunity for a hearing before an administrative law judge in accordance with sections 554 and 556 of title 5. The expenses for conducting the hearing shall be reimbursed by the Commodity Credit Corporation.
 
§ 1359jj. Administration
(a) Use of certain agencies
In carrying out this subpart, the Secretary may use the services of local committees of sugar beet or sugarcane producers, sugarcane processors, or sugar beet processors, State and county committees established under section 590h (b) of title 16, and the departments and agencies of the United States Government.
(b) Use of Commodity Credit Corporation
The Secretary shall use the services, facilities, funds, and authorities of the Commodity Credit Corporation to carry out this subpart.
 
§ 1359kk. Administration of tariff rate quotas
(a) Establishment
(1) In general
Except as provided in paragraph (2) and notwithstanding any other provision of law, at the beginning of the quota year, the Secretary shall establish the tariff-rate quotas for raw cane sugar and refined sugars at the minimum level necessary to comply with obligations under international trade agreements that have been approved by Congress.
(2) Exception
Paragraph (1) shall not apply to specialty sugar.
(b) Adjustment
(1) Before April 1
Before April 1 of each fiscal year, if there is an emergency shortage of sugar in the United States market that is caused by a war, flood, hurricane, or other natural disaster, or other similar event as determined by the Secretary—
(A) the Secretary shall take action to increase the supply of sugar in accordance with sections 1359cc (b)(2) and 1359ee (b) of this title, including an increase in the tariff-rate quota for raw cane sugar to accommodate the reassignment to imports; and
(B) if there is still a shortage of sugar in the United States market, and marketing of domestic sugar has been maximized, and domestic raw cane sugar refining capacity has been maximized, the Secretary may increase the tariff-rate quota for refined sugars sufficient to accommodate the supply increase, if the further increase will not threaten to result in the forfeiture of sugar pledged as collateral for a loan under section 7272 of this title.
(2) On or after April 1
On or after April 1 of each fiscal year—
(A) the Secretary may take action to increase the supply of sugar in accordance with sections 1359cc (b)(2) and 1359ee (b) of this title, including an increase in the tariff-rate quota for raw cane sugar to accommodate the reassignment to imports; and
(B) if there is still a shortage of sugar in the United States market, and marketing of domestic sugar has been maximized, the Secretary may increase the tariff-rate quota for raw cane sugar if the further increase will not threaten to result in the forfeiture of sugar pledged as collateral for a loan under section 7272 of this title.
 
§ 1359ll. Period of effectiveness
(a) In general
This subpart shall be effective only for the 2008 through 2012 crop years for sugar.
(b) Transition
The Secretary shall administer flexible marketing allotments for sugar for the 2007 crop year for sugar on the terms and conditions provided in this subpart as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this section.
 
 
Part C—Administrative Provisions (§§ 1361—1379)
 
subpart i—publication and review of quotas (§§ 1361—1368)
 
§ 1361. Application of subpart
This subpart shall apply to the publication and review of farm marketing quotas established for corn, wheat, cotton, and rice, established under part B of this subchapter.
 
§ 1362. Publication of marketing quota; mailing of allotment notice
All acreage allotments, and the farm marketing quotas established for farms in a county or other local administrative area shall, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, be made and kept freely available for public inspection in such county or other local administrative area. An additional copy of this information shall be kept available in the office of the county agricultural extension agent or with the chairman of the local committee. Notice of the farm marketing quota of his farm shall be mailed to the farmer.
Notice of the farm acreage allotment established for each farm shown by the records of the county committee to be entitled to such allotment shall insofar as practicable be mailed to the farm operator in sufficient time to be received prior to the date of the referendum.
 
§ 1363. Review of quota; review committee
Any farmer who is dissatisfied with his farm marketing quota may, within fifteen days after mailing to him of notice as provided in section 1362 of this title, have such quota reviewed by a local review committee composed of three farmers from the same or nearby counties appointed by the Secretary. Such committee shall not include any member of the local committee which determined the farm acreage allotment, the normal yield, or the farm marketing quota for such farm. Unless application for review is made within such period, the original determination of the farm marketing quota shall be final.
 
§ 1364. Compensation of review committee
The members of the review committee shall receive as compensation for their services the same per diem as that received by the members of the committee utilized for the purposes of chapter 3B of title 16. The members of the review committee shall not be entitled to receive compensation for more than thirty days in any one year.
 
§ 1365. Institution of proceeding for court review of committee findings
If the farmer is dissatisfied with the determination of the review committee, he may, within fifteen days after a notice of such determination is mailed to him by registered mail or by certified mail, file a bill in equity against the review committee as defendant in the United States district court, or institute proceedings for review in any court of record of the State having general jurisdiction, sitting in the county or the district in which his farm is located, for the purpose of obtaining a review of such determination. Bond shall be given in an amount and with surety satisfactory to the court to secure the United States for the costs of the proceeding. The bill of complaint in such proceeding may be served by delivering a copy thereof to any one of the members of the review committee. Thereupon the review committee shall certify and file in the court a transcript of the record upon which the determination complained of was made, together with its findings of fact.
 
§ 1366. Court review
The review by the court shall be limited to questions of law, and the findings of fact by the review committee, if supported by evidence shall be conclusive. If application is made to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and it is shown to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for failure to adduce such evidence in the hearing before the review committee, the court may direct such additional evidence to be taken before the review committee in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper. The review committee may modify its findings of fact or its determination by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and it shall file with the court such modified findings or determination, which findings of fact shall be conclusive. The court shall hear and determine the case upon the original record of the hearing before the review committee, and upon such record as supplemented if supplemented, by further hearing before the review committee pursuant to direction of the court. The court shall affirm the review committee’s determination, or modified determination, if the court determines that the same is in accordance with law. If the court determines that such determination or modified determination is not in accordance with law, the court shall remand the proceeding to the review committee with direction either to make such determination as the court shall determine to be in accordance with law or to take such further proceedings as, in the court’s opinion, the law requires.
 
§ 1367. Stay of proceedings and exclusive jurisdiction
The commencement of judicial proceedings under this subpart shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the review committee’s determination. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the jurisdiction conferred by this subpart to review the legal validity of a determination made by a review committee pursuant to this subpart shall be exclusive. No court of the United States or of any State shall have jurisdiction to pass upon the legal validity of any such determination except in a proceeding under this subpart.
 
§ 1368. Effect of increase on other quotas
Notwithstanding any increase of any farm marketing quota for any farm as a result of review of the determination thereof under this subpart, the marketing quotas for other farms shall not be affected.
 
subpart ii—adjustment of quotas and enforcement (§§ 1371—1379)
 
§ 1371. General adjustment of quotas
(a) Investigation and adjustment to maintain normal supply
If at any time the Secretary has reason to believe that in the case of cotton,[1] or rice the operation of farm marketing quotas in effect will cause the amount of such commodity which is free of marketing restrictions to be less than the normal supply for the marketing year for the commodity then current, he shall cause an immediate investigation to be made with respect thereto. In the course of such investigation due notice and opportunity for hearing shall be given to interested persons. If upon the basis of such investigation the Secretary finds the existence of such fact, he shall proclaim the same forthwith. He shall also in such proclamation specify such increase in, or termination of, existing quotas as he finds, on the basis of such investigation, is necessary to make the amount of such commodity which is free of marketing restrictions equal the normal supply.
(b) Adjustment because of emergency or export demand
If the Secretary has reason to believe that, because of a national emergency or because of a material increase in export demand, any national marketing quota or acreage allotment for cotton,[1] or rice should be increased or terminated, he shall cause an immediate investigation to be made to determine whether the increase or termination is necessary to meet such emergency or increase in export demand. If, on the basis of such investigation, the Secretary finds that such increase or termination is necessary, he shall immediately proclaim such finding (and if he finds an increase is necessary, the amount of the increase found by him to be necessary) and thereupon such quota or allotment shall be increased, or shall terminate, as the case may be.
(c) Increase of farm quota on increase of national quota
In case any national marketing quota or acreage allotment for any commodity is increased under this section, each farm marketing quota or acreage allotment for the commodity shall be increased in the same ratio.
 
§ 1372. Payment, collection, and refund of penalties
(a) The penalty with respect to the marketing, by sale, of wheat, cotton, or rice, if the sale is to any person within the United States, shall be collected by the buyer.
(b) All penalties provided for in part B of this subchapter shall be collected and paid in such manner, at such times, and under such conditions as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe. Such penalties shall be remitted to the Secretary by the person liable for the penalty, except that if any other person is liable for the collection of the penalty, such other person shall remit the penalty. Except as provided in section1314h [1] of this title, the amount of such penalties shall be covered into the general fund of the Treasury of the United States. 
(c) Whenever, pursuant to a claim filed with the Secretary within two years after payment to him of any penalty collected from any person pursuant to this chapter, the Secretary finds that such penalty was erroneously, illegally, or wrongfully collected and the claimant bore the burden of the payment of such penalty, the Secretary shall certify to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment to the claimant, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, such amount as the Secretary finds the claimant is entitled to receive as a refund of such penalty.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary is authorized to prescribe by regulations for the identification of farms and it shall be sufficient to schedule receipts into special deposit accounts or to schedule such receipts for transfer therefrom, or directly, into the separate fund provided for in subsection (b) of this section by means of such identification without reference to the names of the producers on such farms.
The Secretary is authorized to prescribe regulations governing the filing of such claims and the determination of such refunds.
(d) No penalty shall be collected under this chapter with respect to the marketing of any agricultural commodity grown for experimental purposes only by any publicly owned agricultural experiment station. Effective with the 1978 crops, no penalty shall be collected under this chapter with respect to the marketing of any agricultural commodity grown on State prison farms for consumption within such State prison system.
 
§ 1373. Reports and records
(a) Persons reporting
This subsection shall apply to warehousemen, processors, and common carriers of corn, wheat, cotton, or rice, and [1] all ginners of cotton,[2] all persons engaged in the business of purchasing corn, wheat, cotton, or rice from producers. Any such person shall, from time to time on request of the Secretary, report to the Secretary such information and keep such rec­ords as the Secretary finds to be necessary to enable him to carry out the provisions of this subchapter. Such information shall be reported and such records shall be kept in accordance with forms which the Secretary shall prescribe. For the purpose of ascertaining the correctness of any report made or record kept, or of obtaining information required to be furnished in any report, but not so furnished, the Secretary is authorized to examine such books, papers, rec­ords, accounts, correspondence, contracts, documents, and memoranda as he has reason to believe are relevant and are within the control of such person. Any such person failing to make any report or keep any record as required by this subsection or making any false report or record shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to a fine of not more than $500.
(b) Proof of acreage yield
Farmers engaged in the production of corn, wheat, cotton, or rice for market shall furnish such proof of their acreage, yield, storage, and marketing of the commodity in the form of records, marketing cards, reports, storage under seal, or otherwise as the Secretary may prescribe as necessary for the administration of this subchapter.
(c) Data as confidential
All data reported to or acquired by the Secretary pursuant to this section shall be kept confidential by all officers and employees of the Department, and only such data so reported or acquired as the Secretary deems relevant shall be disclosed by them, and then only in a suit or administrative hearing under this subchapter. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prohibit the issuance of general statements based upon the reports of a number of parties which statements do not identify the information furnished by any person.
 
§ 1374. Measurement of farms and report of plantings; remeasurement
(a) The Secretary shall provide for ascertaining, by measurement or otherwise, the acreage of any agricultural commodity or land use on farms for which the ascertainment of such acreage is necessary to determine compliance under any program administered by the Secretary. Insofar as practicable, the acreage of the commodity and land use shall be ascertained prior to harvest, and, if any acreage so ascertained is not in compliance with the requirements of the program the Secretary, under such terms and conditions as he prescribes, may provide a reasonable time for the adjustment of the acreage of the commodity or land use to the requirements of the program. Where cotton is planted in skiprow patterns, the same rules that were in effect for the 1971 through 1973 crops for classifying the acreage planted to cotton and the area skipped shall also apply to the 1974 through 1995 crops, except that, for the 1991 through 1995 crops, the rules shall allow 30 inch rows (or, at the option of those cotton producers who had an established practice of using 32 inch rows before the 1991 crop, 32 inch rows) to be taken into account for classifying the acreage planted to cotton and the area skipped. For the 1992 through 1995 crops, the rules establishing the requirements for eligibility for conserving use for payment acres shall be the same rules as were in effect for 1991 crops.
(b) With respect to cotton, the Secretary, upon such terms and conditions as he may by regulation prescribe, shall provide, through the county and local committees for the measurement prior to planting of an acreage on the farm equal to the farm acreage allotment if so requested by the farm operator, and any farm on which the acreage planted to cotton does not exceed such measured acreage shall be deemed to be in compliance with the farm acreage allotment.
(c) The Secretary shall by appropriate regulations provide for the remeasurement upon request by the farm operator of the acreage planted to such commodity on the farm and for the measurement of the acreage planted to such commodity on the farm remaining after any adjustment of excess acreage hereunder and shall prescribe the conditions under which the farm operator shall be required to pay the county committee for the expense of the measurement of adjusted acreage or the expense of remeasurement after the initial measurement or the measurement of adjusted acreage. The regulations shall also provide for the refund of any deposit or payment made for the expense of the remeasurement of the initially determined acreage or the adjusted acreage when because of an error in the determination of such acreage the remeasurement brings the acreage within the allotment or permitted acreage or results in a change in acreage in excess of a reasonable variation normal to measurements of acreage of the commodity. Unless the requirements for measurement of adjusted acreage are met by the farm operator, the acreage prior to such adjustment as determined by the county committee shall be considered the acreage of the commodity on the farm in determining whether the applicable farm allotment has been exceeded.
 
§ 1375. Regulations
(a) The Secretary shall provide by regulations for the identification, wherever necessary, of corn, wheat, cotton, rice, or peanuts so as to afford aid in discovering and identifying such amounts of the commodities as are subject to and such amounts thereof as are not subject to marketing restrictions in effect under this subchapter.
(b) The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary for the enforcement of this subchapter.
 
 
 
§ 1376. Court jurisdiction; duties of United States attorneys; remedies and penalties as additional
The several district courts of the United States are vested with jurisdiction specifically to enforce the provisions of this subchapter. If and when the Secretary shall so request, it shall be the duty of the several United States attorneys in their respective districts, under the direction of the Attorney General, to institute proceedings to collect the penalties provided in this subchapter. The remedies and penalties provided for herein shall be in addition to, and not exclusive of, any of the remedies or penalties under existing law. This section also shall be applicable to liquidated damages provided for pursuant to section 1349 of this title.
 
§ 1377. Preservation of unused acreage allotments
In any case in which, during any year beginning with 1956, the acreage planted to a commodity on any farm is less than the acreage allotment for such farm, the entire acreage allotment for such farm (excluding any allotment released from the farm or reapportioned to the farm and any allotment provided for the farm pursuant to subsection (f)(7)(A) of section 1344 of this title) shall, except as provided herein, be considered for the purpose of establishing future State, county and farm acreage allotments, to have been planted to such commodity in such year on such farm, but the 1956 acreage allotment of any commodity shall be regarded as planted under this section only if the owner or operator on such farm notified the county committee prior to the sixtieth day preceding the beginning of the marketing year for such commodity of his desire to preserve such allotment: Provided, That beginning with the 1960 crop, except for federally owned land, the current farm acreage allotment established for a commodity shall not be preserved as history acreage pursuant to the provisions of this section unless for the current year or either of the two preceding years an acreage equal to 75 per centum or more of the farm acreage allotment for such year or, in the case of upland cotton on a farm which qualified for price support on the crop produced in any such year under section 1444 (b) of this title, 75 per centum of the farm domestic allotment established under section 1350 of this title for any such year, whichever is smaller was actually planted or devoted to the commodity on the farm (or was regarded as planted under provisions of the Soil Bank Act or the environmental quality incentives program established under chapter 4 of subtitle D of title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 [16 U.S.C. 3839aa et seq.]): Provided further, That this section shall not be applicable in any case, within the period 1956 to 1959, in which the amount of the commodity required to be stored to postpone or avoid payment of penalty has been reduced because the allotment was not fully planted. Acreage history credits for released or reapportioned acreage shall be governed by the applicable provisions of this subchapter pertaining to the release and reapportionment of acreage allotments.
 
§ 1378. Transfer of acreage allotments ensuing from agency acquisition of farmlands
(a) Allotment pool
Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the allotment determined for any commodity for any land from which the owner is displaced because of acquisition of the land for any purpose, other than for the continued production of allotted crops, by any Federal, State, or other agency having the right of eminent domain shall be placed in an allotment pool and shall be available only for use in providing allotments for other farms owned by the owner so displaced. Upon application to the county committee, within three years after the date of such displacement, any owner so displaced shall be entitled to have allotments established for other farms owned by him, taking into consideration the land, labor, and equipment available on such other farms for the production of the commodity, crop-rotation practices, and the soil and other physical factors affecting the production of the commodity: Provided, That the acreage used to establish or increase the allotments for such farms shall be transferred from the pool and shall not exceed the allotment most recently established for the farm acquired from the applicant and placed in the pool. During the period of eligibility for the making of allotments under this section for a displaced owner, acreage allotments for the farm from which the owner was so displaced shall be established in accordance with the procedure applicable to other farms, and such allotments shall be considered to have been fully planted. After such allotment is made under this section, the proportionate part, or all, as the case may be, of the past acreage used in establishing the allotment most recently placed in the pool for the farm from which the owner was so displaced shall be transferred to and considered for the purposes of future State, county, and farm acreage allotments to have been planted on the farm to which allotment is made under this section. Except where subsection (c) of this section requires the transfer of allotment to another portion of the same farm, for the purpose of this section (1) that part of any farm from which the owner is so displaced and that part from which he is not so displaced shall be considered as separate farms; and (2) an owner who voluntarily relinquishes possession of the land subsequent to its acquisition by an agency having the right of eminent domain shall be considered as having been displaced because of such acquisition. The former owner of land acquired as described in this subsection shall not be considered for the purposes hereof to have been displaced from such land during any period for which such land is leased to such former owner: Provided, That the occupancy of the former owner under the lease follows immediately after his occupancy as owner: And provided further, That if a former owner has been displaced prior to April 9, 1960, and no allotment from the land owned by such former owner has been transferred from the allotment pool and such former owner leases the land formerly owned by him prior to two years from April 9, 1960, such allotment shall be retransferred from the pool to such land and the occupancy of such former owner under the lease for the purposes of this subsection shall be deemed to have begun immediately after his displacement as owner. During any year of the 3–year period the allotment from a farm may remain in the allotment pool, the displaced owner may, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, release for one year at a time any part or all of such farm allotment to the county committee for reapportionment to other farms in the county having allotments for such commodity on the basis of the past acreage of the commodity, land, labor, equipment available for the production of the commodity, crop rotation practices, and soil and other physical facilities affecting the production of the commodity; and the allotment reapportioned shall, for purposes of establishing future farm allotments, not be regarded as planted on the farm to which the allotment was transferred.
(b) Circumstances precluding application of provisions
The provisions of this section shall not be applicable if
(1) there is any marketing quota penalty due with respect to the marketing of the commodity from the farm acquired by the Federal, State, or other agency or by the owner of the farm;
(2) any of the commodity produced on such farm has not been accounted for as required by the Secretary; or
(3) the allotment next established for the farm acquired by the Federal, State, or other agency would have been reduced because of false or improper identification of the commodity produced on or marketed from such farm or due to a false acreage report.
(c) Time of displacement determining application of provisions
This section shall not be applicable, in the case of and [1] cotton, to any farm from which the owner was displaced prior to 1950, in the case of wheat and corn, to any farm from which the owner was displaced prior to 1954, and in the case of rice, to any farm from which the owner was displaced prior to 1955. In any case where the cropland acquired for nonfarming purposes from an owner by an agency having the right of eminent domain represents less than 15 per centum of the total cropland on the farm, the allotment attributable to that portion of the farm so acquired shall be transferred to that portion of the farm not so acquired
 
§ 1379. Reconstitution of farms
In any case in which the ownership of a tract of land is transferred from a parent farm, the acreage allotments, history acreages, and base acreages for the farm shall be divided between such tract and the parent farm in the same proportion that the cropland acreage in such tract bears to the cropland acreage in the parent farm, except that the Secretary shall provide by regulation the method to be used in determining the division, if any, of the acreage allotments, histories, and bases in any case in which—
(1) the tract of land transferred from the parent farm has been or is being transferred to any agency having the right to acquire it by eminent domain;
(2) the tract of land transferred from the parent farm is to be used for nonagricultural purposes;
(3) the parent farm resulted from a combination of two or more tracts of land and records are available showing the contribution of each tract to the allotments, histories, and bases of the parent farm;
(4) the appropriate county committee determines that a division based on cropland proportions would result in allotments and bases not representative of the operations normally carried out on any transferred tract during the base period;
(5) the parent farm is divided among heirs in settling an estate; or
(6) neither the tract transferred from the parent farm nor the remaining portion of the parent farm receives allotments in excess of allotments for similar farms in the community having allotments of the commodity or commodities involved and such allotments are consistent with good land uses.
 
Part D—Wheat Marketing Allocation (§§ 1379a—1379j)
 
§ 1379a. Legislative findings
Wheat, in addition to being a basic food, is one of the great export crops of American agriculture and its production for domestic consumption and for export is necessary to the maintenance of a sound national economy and to the general welfare. The movement of wheat from producer to consumer, in the form of the commodity or any of the products thereof, is preponderantly in interstate and foreign commerce. Unreasonably low prices of wheat to producers impair their purchasing power for nonagriculture products and place them in a position of serious disparity with other industrial groups. The conditions affecting the production of wheat are such that without Federal assistance, producers cannot effectively prevent disastrously low prices for wheat. It is necessary, in order to assist wheat producers in obtaining fair prices, to regulate the price of wheat used for domestic food and for exports in the manner provided in this part.
 
§ 1379b. Wheat marketing allocation; amount; national allocation percentage; commercial and noncommercial wheat-producing areas
During any marketing year for which a marketing quota is in effect for wheat, beginning with the marketing year for the 1964 crop, a wheat marketing allocation program shall be in effect as provided in this part. Whenever a wheat marketing allocation program is in effect for any marketing year the Secretary shall determine
(1) the wheat marketing allocation for such year which shall be the amount of wheat which in determining the national marketing quota for such marketing year he estimated would be used during such year for food products for consumption in the United States, and that portion of the amount of wheat which in determining such quota he estimated would be exported in the form of wheat or products thereof during the marketing year on which the Secretary determines that marketing certificates shall be issued to producers in order to achieve, insofar as practicable, the price and income objectives of this part, and
(2) the national allocation percentage which shall be the percentage which the national marketing allocation is of the national marketing quota. Each farm shall receive a wheat marketing allocation for such marketing year equal to the number of bushels obtained by multiplying the number of acres in the farm acreage allotment for wheat by the projected farm yield, and multiplying the resulting number of bushels by the national allocation percentage. If a noncommercial wheat-producing area is established for any marketing year, farms in such area shall be given wheat marketing allocations which are determined by the Secretary to be fair and reasonable in relation to the wheat marketing allocation given producers in the commercial wheat-producing area.
 
§ 1379c. Marketing certificates
(a) Issuance; amount; reduction; sharing among producers; domestic and export certificates
The Secretary shall provide for the issuance of wheat marketing certificates for each marketing year for which a wheat marketing allocation program is in effect for the purpose of enabling producers on any farm with respect to which certificates are issued to receive, in addition to the other proceeds from the sale of wheat, an amount equal to the value of such certificates. The wheat marketing certificates issued with respect to any farm for any marketing year shall be in the amount of the farm wheat marketing allocation for such year, but not to exceed
(i) the actual acreage of wheat planted on the farm for harvest in the calendar year in which the marketing year begins multiplied by the normal yield of wheat for the farm, plus
(ii) the amount of wheat stored under subsection (b) of this section or to avoid or postpone a marketing quota penalty, which is released from storage during the marketing year on account of underplanting or underproduction, and if this limitation operates to reduce the amount of wheat marketing certificates which would otherwise be issued with respect to the farm, such reduction shall be made first from the amount of export certificates which would otherwise be issued. The Secretary shall provide for the sharing of wheat marketing certificates among producers on the farm on the basis of their respective shares in the wheat crop produced on the farm, or the proceeds therefrom; except that in any case in which the Secretary determines that such basis would not be fair and equitable, the Secretary shall provide for such sharing on such other basis as he may determine to be fair and equitable. The Secretary shall, in accordance with such regulation as he may prescribe, provide for the issuance of domestic marketing certificates for the portion of the wheat marketing allocation representing wheat used for food products for consumption in the United States. The Secretary shall also provide for the issuance of export marketing certificates to eligible producers at the end of the marketing year on a pro rata basis. For such purposes, the value per bushel of export marketing certificates shall be an average of the total net proceeds from the sale of export marketing certificates during the marketing year after deducting the total amount of wheat export subsidies paid to exporters. An acreage on the farm which the Secretary finds was not planted to wheat for harvest in 1965 because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster shall be deemed by the Secretary to be an actual acreage of wheat planted for harvest for purposes of this subsection, provided such acreage is not subsequently planted to any other price supported crop for 1965. An acreage on the farm not planted to wheat because of drought, flood, or other natural disaster shall be deemed to be an actual acreage of wheat planted for harvest for purposes of this subsection provided such acreage is not subsequently planted to any crop for which there are marketing quotas or voluntary adjustment programs in effect. Producers on any farm who have planted not less than 90 per centum of the acreage of wheat required to be planted in order to earn the full amount of marketing certificates for which the farm is eligible shall be deemed to have planted the entire acreage required to be planted for that purpose.
(b) Producers eligible for certificates; storage conditions
No producer shall be eligible to receive wheat marketing certificates with respect to any farm for any marketing year in which a marketing quota penalty is assessed for any commodity on such farm or in which the farm has not complied with the land-use requirements of section 1339 of this title to the extent prescribed by the Secretary, or in which, except as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe, the producer exceeds the farm acreage allotment on any other farm for any commodity in which he has an interest as a producer. No producer shall be deemed to have exceeded a farm acreage allotment for wheat if the entire amount of the farm marketing excess is delivered to the Secretary or stored in accordance with applicable regulations to avoid or postpone payment of the penalty. No producer shall be deemed to have exceeded the farm acreage allotment for wheat on any other farm if such farm is exempt from the farm marketing quota for such crop under section 1335 of this title. Any wheat delivered to the Secretary hereunder shall become the property of the United States and shall be disposed of by the Secretary for relief purposes in the United States or in foreign countries or in such other manner as he shall determine will divert it from the normal channels of trade and commerce. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Secretary may provide that a producer shall not be eligible to receive marketing certificates, or may adjust the amount of marketing certificates to be received by the producer, with respect to any farm for any year in which a variety of wheat is planted on the farm which has been determined by the Secretary, after consultation with State Agricultural Experiment Stations, agronomists, cereal chemists and other qualified technicians, to have undesirable milling or baking qualities and has made public announcement thereof.
(c) Face value
The Secretary shall determine and proclaim for each marketing year the face value per bushel of wheat marketing certificates. The face value per bushel of domestic certificates shall be the amount by which the level of price support for wheat accompanied by domestic certificates exceeds the level of price support for wheat not accompanied by certificates (noncertificate wheat).
(d) Statement or form of certificates and transfers
Marketing certificates and transfers thereof shall be represented by such documents, marketing cards, records, accounts, certifications, or other statements or forms as the Secretary may prescribe.
(e) Failure of producer to comply with programs; issuance of certificates
In any case in which the failure of a producer to comply fully with the term and conditions of the programs formulated under this chapter preclude the issuance of marketing certificates, the Secretary may, nevertheless, issue such certificates in such amounts as he determines to be equitable in relation to the seriousness of the default.
 
§ 1379d. Marketing restrictions
(a) Transfers of certificates; purchases by Commodity Credit Corporation
Marketing certificates shall be transferable only in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Any unused certificates legally held by any person shall be purchased by Commodity Credit Corporation if tendered to the Corporation for purchase in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary.
(b) Processor and exporter acquisition of domestic and export certificates; international trade, expansion; refunds or credits for certificates; exemptions from requirements
During any marketing year for which a wheat marketing allocation program is in effect,
(i) all persons engaged in the processing of wheat into food products shall, prior to marketing any such food product or removing such food product for sale or consumption, acquire domestic marketing certificates equivalent to the number of bushels of wheat contained in such product and
(ii) all persons exporting wheat shall, prior to such export, acquire export marketing certificates equivalent to the number of bushels so exported. The cost of the export marketing certificates per bushel to the exporter shall be that amount determined by the Secretary on a daily basis which would make United States wheat and wheat flour generally competitive in the world market, avoid disruption of world market prices, and fulfill the international obligations of the United States. The Secretary may exempt from the requirements of this subsection wheat exported for donation abroad and other noncommercial exports of wheat, wheat processed for use on the farm where grown, wheat produced by a State or agency thereof and processed for use by the State or agency thereof, wheat processed for donation, and wheat processed for uses determined by the Secretary to be noncommercial. Such exemptions may be made applicable with respect to any wheat processed or exported beginning July 1, 1964. There shall be exempt from the requirements of this subsection beverage distilled from wheat prior to July 1, 1964. A beverage distilled from wheat after July 1, 1964, shall be deemed to be removed for sale or consumption at the time it is placed in barrels for aging except that upon the giving of a bond as prescribed by the Secretary, the purchase of and payment for such marketing certificates as may be required may be deferred until such beverage is bottled for sale. Wheat shipped to a Canadian port for storage in bond, or storage under a similar arrangement, and subsequent exportation, shall be deemed to have been exported for purposes of this subsection when it is exported from the Canadian port. Marketing certificates shall be valid to cover only sales or removals for sale or consumption or exportations made during the marketing year with respect to which they are issued, and after being once used to cover a sale or removal for sale or consumption or export of a food product or an export of wheat shall be void and shall be disposed of in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions hereof, the Secretary may require marketing certificates issued for any marketing year to be acquired to cover sales, removals, or exportations made on or after the date during the calendar year in which wheat harvested in such calendar year begins to be marketed as determined by the Secretary even though such wheat is marketed prior to the beginning of the marketing year, and marketing certificates for such marketing year shall be valid to cover sales, removals, or exportations made on or after the date so determined by the Secretary. Whenever the face value per bushel of domestic marketing certificates for a marketing year is different from the face value of domestic marketing certificates for the preceding marketing year, the Secretary may require marketing certificates issued for the preceding marketing year to be acquired to cover all wheat processed into food products during such preceding marketing year even though the food product may be marketed or removed for sale or consumption after the end of the marketing year.
(c) Undertaking to secure marketing of commodity without certificate
Upon the giving of a bond or other undertaking satisfactory to the Secretary to secure the purchase of and payment for such marketing certificates as may be required, and subject to such regulations as he may prescribe, any person required to have marketing certificates in order to market or export a commodity may be permitted to market any such commodity without having first acquired marketing certificates.
(d) “Food products” defined; exemption of flour second clears
As used in this part, the term “food products” means flour (excluding flour second clears not used for human consumption as determined by the Secretary), semolina, farina, bulgur, beverage, and any other product composed wholly or partly of wheat which the Secretary may determine to be a food product. The Secretary may at his election administer the exemption for wheat processed into flour second clears through refunds either to processors of such wheat or to the users of such clears. For the purpose of such refunds, the wheat equivalent of flour second clears may be determined on the basis of conversion factors authorized by section 1379f of this title, even though certificates had been surrendered on the basis of the weight of the wheat.
 
§ 1379e. Assistance in purchase and sale of marketing certificates; regulations; administrative expenses; interest
For the purpose of facilitating the purchase and sale of marketing certificates, the Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized to issue, buy, and sell marketing certificates in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary. Such regulations may authorize the Corporation to issue and sell certificates in excess of the quantity of certificates which it purchases. Such regulations may authorize the Corporation in the sale of marketing certificates to charge, in addition to the face value thereof, an amount determined by the Secretary to be appropriate to cover estimated administrative costs in connection with the purchase and sale of the certificates and estimated interest incurred on funds of the Corporation invested in certificates purchased by it.
 
§ 1379f. Conversion factors
The Secretary shall establish conversion factors which shall be used to determine the amount of wheat contained in any food product. The conversion factor for any such food product shall be determined upon the basis of the weight of wheat used in the manufacture of such product.
 
§ 1379g. Authority to facilitate transition
(a) The Secretary is authorized to take such action as he determines to be necessary to facilitate the transition from the program currently in effect to the program provided for in this part. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, such authority shall include, but shall not be limited to, the authority to exempt all or a portion of the wheat or food products made therefrom in the channels of trade on the effective date of the program under this part from the marketing restrictions in subsection (b) of section 1379d of this title, or to sell certificates to persons owning such wheat or food products at such prices as the Secretary may determine. Any such certificate shall be issued by Commodity Credit Corporation.
(b) Whenever the face value per bushel of domestic marketing certificates for a marketing year is substantially different from the face value of domestic marketing certificates for the preceding marketing year, the Secretary is authorized to take such action as he determines necessary to facilitate the transition between marketing years. Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, such authority shall include, but shall not be limited to, the authority to sell certificates to persons engaged in the processing of wheat into food products covering such quantities of wheat, at such prices, and under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may by regulation provide. Any such certificate shall be issued by Commodity Credit Corporation.
(c) The Secretary is authorized to take such action as he determines to be necessary to facilitate the transition from the certificate program provided for under section 1379dof this title to a program under which no certificates are required. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such authority shall include, but shall not be limited to the authority to exempt all or a portion of wheat or food products made therefrom in the channels of trade on July 1, 1973, from the marketing restrictions in subsection (b) of section 1379d of this title, or to sell certificates to persons owning such wheat or food products made therefrom at such price and under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may determine. Any such certificate shall be issued by the Commodity Credit Corporation. Nothing herein shall authorize the Secretary to require certificates on wheat processed after June 30, 1973.
 
§ 1379h. Applicability of provisions to designated persons; reports and records; examinations by the Secretary
This section shall apply to processors of wheat, warehousemen and exporters of wheat and food products, and all persons purchasing, selling, or otherwise dealing in wheat marketing certificates. Any such person shall, from time to time on request of the Secretary, report to the Secretary such information and keep such records as the Secretary finds to be necessary to enable him to carry out the provisions of this part. Such information shall be reported and such records shall be kept in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe. For the purpose of ascertaining the correctness of any report made or record kept, or of obtaining information required to be furnished in any report, but not so furnished, the Secretary is authorized to examine such books, papers, records, accounts, correspondence, contracts, documents, and memorandums as he has reason to believe are relevant and are within the control of such person.
 
§ 1379i. Penalties
(a) Forfeitures; amount; civil action
Any person who knowingly violates or attempts to violate or who knowingly participates or aids in the violation of any of the provisions of subsection (b) of section 1379d of this title shall forfeit to the United States a sum equal to two times the face value of the marketing certif­icates involved in such violation. Such forfeiture shall be recoverable in a civil action brought in the name of the United States.
(b) Misdemeanors; punishment
Any person, except a producer in his capacity as a producer, who knowingly violates or attempts to violate or who knowingly participates or aids in the violation of any provision of this part, or of any regulation, governing the acquisition, disposition, or handling of marketing certificates or who knowingly fails to make any report or keep any record as required by section 1379h of this title shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to a fine of not more than $5,000 for each violation.
(c) Forfeiture of right to receive certificates; payment of face value
Any person who, in his capacity as a producer, knowingly violates or attempts to violate or participates or aids in the violation of any provision of this part, or of any regulation, governing the acquisition, disposition, or handling of marketing certificates or fails to make any report or keep any record as required by section1379h of this title shall, (i) forfeit any right to receive marketing certificates, in whole or in part as the Secretary may determine, with respect to the farm or farms and for the marketing year with respect to which any such act or default is committed, or (ii), if such marketing certificates have already been issued, pay to the Secretary, upon demand, the amount of the face value of such certificates, or such part thereof as the Secretary may determine. Such determination by the Secretary with respect to the amount of such marketing certificates to be forfeited or the amount to be paid by such producer shall take into consideration the circumstances relating to the act or default committed and the seriousness of such act or default.
(d) Felonies; punishment
Any person who falsely makes, issues, alters, forges, or counterfeits any marketing certificate, or with fraudulent intent possesses, transfers, or uses any such falsely made, issued, altered, forged, or counterfeited marketing certificate, shall be deemed guilty of a felony and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment of not more than ten years, or both.
 
§ 1379j. Regulations
The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this part including but not limited to regulations governing the acquisition, disposition, or handling of marketing certificates.
 
Part E—Rice Certificates (§ 1380a_to_1380p)
 
 
 
Part F—Miscellaneous Provisions and Appropriations (§§ 1381_to_1382—1393)
 
subpart i—miscellaneous (§§ 1381_to_1382—1390)
 
 
§ 1383. Insurance of cotton; reconcentration
(a) The Commodity Credit Corporation shall place all insurance of every nature taken out by it on cotton, and all renewals, extensions, or continuations of existing insurance, with insurance agents who are bonafide residents of and doing business in the State where the cotton is warehoused: Provided, That such insurance may be secured at a cost not greater than similar insurance offered on said cotton elsewhere.
(b) Cotton held as security for any loan heretofore or hereafter made or arranged for by the Commodity Credit Corporation shall not hereafter be reconcentrated without the written consent of the producer or borrower.
 
§ 1383a. Written consent for reconcentration of cotton
In the administration of section 1383 (b) of this title the written consent of the producer or borrower to the reconcentration of any cotton held as security for any loan heretofore or hereafter made or arranged for by the Commodity Credit Corporation shall not be deemed to have been given unless such consent shall have been given in an instrument made solely for that purpose. Notwithstanding any provision of any loan agreement heretofore made, no cotton held under any such agreement as security for any such loan shall be moved from one warehouse to another unless the written consent of the producer or borrower shall have been obtained in a separate instrument given solely for that purpose, as required by this section. The giving of written consent for the reconcentration of cotton shall not be made a condition upon the making of any loan hereafter made or arranged for by the Commodity Credit Corporation: Provided, however, That in cases where there is congestion and lack of storage facilities, and the local warehouse certifies such fact and requests the Commodity Credit Corporation to move the cotton for reconcentration to some other point, or when the Commodity Credit Corporation determines such loan cotton is improperly warehoused and subject to damage, or if uninsured, or if any of the terms of the loan agreement are violated, or if carrying charges are substantially in excess of the average of carrying charges available elsewhere, and the local warehouse, after notice, declines to reduce such charges, such written consent as provided in this section need not be obtained; and consent to movement under any of the conditions of this proviso may be required in future loan agreements.
 
§ 1384. Repealed.]
 
§ 1385. Finality of payments and loans; substitution of beneficiaries
The facts constituting the basis for any chapter 3B of title 16 payment, any payment under the wheat, feed grain, upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, and rice programs authorized by chapter 35A of this title and this chapter, any loan, or price support operation, or the amount thereof, when officially determined in conformity with the applicable regulations prescribed by the Secretary or by the Commodity Credit Corporation, shall be final and conclusive and shall not be reviewable by any other officer or agency of the Government. In case any person who is entitled to any such payment dies, becomes incompetent, or disappears before receiving such payment, or is succeeded by another who renders or completes the required performance, the payment shall, without regard to any other provisions of law, be made as the Secretary of Agriculture may determine to be fair and reasonable in all the circumstances and provide by regulations. This section also shall be applicable to payments provided for under section 1348 of this title.
 
§ 1386. Exemption from laws prohibiting interest of Members of Congress in contracts
The provisions of section 6306 of title 41 and sections 431 and 432 of title 18 shall not be applicable to loans or payments made under this chapter (except under section 1383 (a) of this title).
 
§ 1387. Photographic reproductions and maps
The Secretary may furnish reproductions of information such as geo-referenced data from all sources, aerial or other photographs, mosaics, and maps as have been obtained in connection with the authorized work of the Department to farmers and governmental agencies at the estimated cost of furnishing such reproductions, and to persons other than farmers at such prices as the Secretary may determine (but not less than the estimated costs of data processing, updating, revising, reformatting, repackaging and furnishing the reproductions and information), the money received from such sales to be deposited in the Treasury to the credit of the appropriation charged with the cost of making such reproductions. This section shall not affect the power of the Secretary to make other disposition of such or similar materials under any other provisions of existing law.
 
§ 1388. Utilization of local agencies
(a) Designation of local agencies and local administrative areas
The provisions of sections 590h (b) and 590k of title 16, relating to the utilization of State, county, local committees, the extension service, and other approved agencies, and to recognition and encouragement of cooperative associations, shall apply in the administration of this chapter; and the Secretary shall, for such purposes, utilize the same local, county, and State committees as are utilized under sections 590g590h,590i, and 590j to 590q of title 16. The local administrative areas designated under section 590h (b) of title 16, for the administration of programs under chapter 3B of title 16, and the local administrative areas designated for the administration of this chapter shall be the same.
(b) Payments to county committees for administrative expenses
(1) The Secretary is authorized and directed, from any funds made available for the purposes of this chapter and chapter 3B of title 16 in connection with which county committees are utilized, to make payments to county committees of farmers to cover the estimated administrative expenses incurred or to be incurred by them in cooperating in carrying out the provisions of this chapter and chapter 3B of title16. All or part of such estimated administrative expenses of any such committee may be deducted pro rata from chapter 3B of title 16 payments, parity payments, or loans, or other payments under this chapter and chapter 3B of title 16, made unless payment of such expenses is otherwise provided by law. The Secretary may make such payments to such committees in advance of determination of performance by farmers.
(2)
(A) The Secretary shall provide compensation to members of such county committees (at not less than the level in effect on December 31, 1985 for county committees) for work actually performed by such persons in cooperating in carrying out this chapter and chapter 3B of title 16 in connection with which such committees are used.
(B) The rate of compensation received by such persons for such work on December 23, 1985, shall be increased at the discretion of the Secretary.
(c) Travel expenses
(1) The Secretary shall make payments to members of local, county, and State committees to cover expenses for travel incurred by such persons (including, in the case of a member of a local or county committee, travel between the home of such member and the local county office of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service) in cooperating in carrying out this chapter and chapter 3B of title 16 in connection with which such Committees [1] are used. 
(2) Such travel expenses shall be paid in the manner authorized under section5703 of title 5 for the payment of expenses and allowances for individuals employed intermittently in the Federal Government service.
 
§ 1389. Personnel
The Secretary is authorized and directed to provide for the execution by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration of such of the powers conferred upon him by this chapter as he deems may be appropriately exercised by such Administration; and for such purposes the provisions of law applicable to appointment and compensation of persons employed by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration shall apply.
 
§ 1390. Separability
If any provision of this chapter, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the chapter and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, and the provisions of chapter 3B of title 16, shall not be affected thereby. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, if any provision of this chapter should be held not to be within the power of the Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce, such provision shall not be held invalid if it is within the power of the Congress to provide for the general welfare or any other power of the Congress. If any provision of this chapter for marketing quotas with respect to any commodity should be held invalid, no provision of this chapter for marketing quotas with respect to any other commodity shall be affected thereby. If the application of any provision for a referendum should be held invalid, the application of other provisions shall not be affected thereby. If by reason of any provision for a referendum the application of any such other provision to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the application of such other provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected thereby.
 
 
subpart ii—appropriations and administrative expenses (§§ 1391—1393)
 
§ 1391. Authorization of appropriations; loans from Commodity Credit Corporation
(a) Beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1938, there is hereby authorized to be appropriated, for each fiscal year for the administration of this chapter and for the making of soil conservation and other payments such sums as Congress may determine, in addition to any amount made available pursuant to section590o of title 16.
(b) For the administration of this chapter (and the provisions of chapter 36 of this title) during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1938, there is hereby authorized to be made available from the funds appropriated for such fiscal year for carrying out the purposes of sections 590g590h590i, and 590j to 590q of title 16, a sum not to exceed $5,000,000.
(c) During each fiscal year, beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941, the Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized and directed to loan to the Secretary such sums, not to exceed $50,000,000, as he estimates will be required during such fiscal year, to make crop insurance premium advances and to make advances pursuant to the applicable provisions of sections 590h and 590l of title 16, in connection with programs applicable to crops harvested in the calendar year in which such fiscal year ends, and to pay the administrative expenses of county agricultural conservation associations for the calendar year in which such fiscal year ends. The sums so loaned during any fiscal year shall be transferred to the current appropriation available for carrying out sections590g590h590i, and 590j to 590q of title 16 and shall be repaid, with interest at a rate to be determined by the Secretary but not less than the cost of money to the Commodity Credit Corporation for a comparable period, during the succeeding fiscal year from the appropriation available for that year or from any unobligated balance of the appropriation for any other year.
 
§ 1392. Administrative expenses; posting names and compensation of local employees
(a) The Secretary is authorized and directed to make such expenditures as he deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter and sections 590g590h590i, and 590j to 590q of title 16, including personal services and rents in the District of Columbia and elsewhere; traveling expenses; supplies and equipment; lawbooks, books of reference, directories, periodicals, and newspapers; and the preparation and display of exhibits, including such displays at community, county, State, interstate, and international fairs within the United States. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed upon the request of the Secretary to establish one or more separate appropriation accounts into which there shall be transferred from the respective funds available for the purposes of this chapter and chapter 3B of title 16, in connection with which personnel or other facilities of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration are utilized, proportionate amounts estimated by the Secretary to be required by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration for administrative expenses in carrying out or cooperating in carrying out any of the provisions of this chapter and chapter 3B of title 16.
(b) In the administration of this subchapter and sections 590g590h590i, and 590jto 590q of title 16, the aggregate amount expended in any fiscal year, beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942, for administrative expenses in the District of Columbia, including regional offices, and in the several States (not including the expenses of county and local committees) shall not exceed 3 per centum of the total amount available for such fiscal year for carrying out the purposes of this subchapter and chapter 3B of title 16, unless otherwise provided by appropriation or other law. In the administration of section 612c of this title, and sections 601602608a608b,608c608d610612614624, and 671 to 673 of this title, the aggregate amount expended in any fiscal year beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942, for administrative expenses in the District of Columbia, including regional offices, and in the several States (not including the expenses of county and local committees) shall not exceed 4 per centum of the total amount available for such fiscal year for carrying out the purposes of said sections, unless otherwise provided by appropriation or other law. In the event any administrative expenses of any county or local committee are deducted in any fiscal year, beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1939, from chapter 3Bof title 16 payments, parity payments, or loans, each farmer receiving benefits under such provisions shall be apprised of the amount or percentage deducted from such benefit payment or loan on account of such administrative expenses. The names and addresses of the members and employees of any county or local committee, and the amount of such compensation received by each of them, shall be posted annually in a conspicuous place in the area within which they are employed.
 
§ 1393. Allotment of appropriations
All funds for carrying out the provisions of this chapter shall be available for allotment to bureaus and offices of the Department, and for transfer to such other agencies of the Federal Government, and to such State agencies, as the Secretary may request to cooperate or assist in carrying out the provisions of this chapter.
 
 
SUBCHAPTER III—COTTON POOL PARTICIPATION TRUST CERTIFICATES (§ 1401_to_1407)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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