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CHAPTER 394 MENTAL HEALTH PART I FLORIDA MENTAL HEALTH ACT (ss. 394.451-394.4789) PART II INTERSTATE COMPACT ON MENTAL HEALTH (ss. 394.479-394.484) PART III COMPREHENSIVE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES (ss. 394.490-394.4985) PART IV COMMUNITY SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES (ss. 394.65-394.9081) PART V INVOLUNTARY CIVIL COMMITMENT OF SEXUALLY VIOLENT PREDATORS (ss. 394.910-394.931) PART I FLORIDA MENTAL HEALTH ACT 394.451Short title. 394.453Legislative intent. 394.455Definitions. 394.457Operation and administration. 394.4572Screening of mental health personnel. 394.4573Continuity of care management system; measures of performance; reports. 394.4574Department responsibilities for a mental health resident who resides in an assisted living facility that holds a limited mental health license. 394.458Introduction or removal of certain articles unlawful; penalty. 394.459Rights of patients. 394.4595Florida statewide and local advocacy councils; access to patients and records. 394.4597Persons to be notified; patient's representative. 394.4598Guardian advocate. 394.4599Notice. 394.460Rights of professionals. 394.461Designation of receiving and treatment facilities. 394.4615Clinical records; confidentiality. 394.462Transportation. 394.4625Voluntary admissions. 394.463Involuntary examination. 394.467Involuntary placement. 394.4672Procedure for placement of veteran with federal agency. 394.4674Plan and report. 394.468Admission and discharge procedures. 394.4685Transfer of patients among facilities. 394.469Discharge of involuntary patients. 394.473Attorney's fee; expert witness fee. 394.475Acceptance, examination, and involuntary placement of Florida residents from out-of-state mental health authorities. 394.4781Residential care for psychotic and emotionally disturbed children. 394.4784Minors; access to outpatient crisis intervention services and treatment. 394.4785Children and adolescents; admission and placement in mental facilities. 394.4786Intent. 394.47865South Florida State Hospital; privatization. 394.4787Definitions; ss. 394.4786, 394.4787, 394.4788, and 394.4789. 394.4788Use of certain PMATF funds for the purchase of acute care mental health services. 394.4789Establishment of referral process and eligibility determination. 394.451Short title.--This part shall be known as "The Florida Mental Health Act" or "The Baker Act." History.--s. 1, ch. 71-131. 394.453Legislative intent.--It is the intent of the Legislature to authorize and direct the Department of Children and Family Services to evaluate, research, plan, and recommend to the Governor and the Legislature programs designed to reduce the occurrence, severity, duration, and disabling aspects of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. It is the intent of the Legislature that treatment programs for such disorders shall include, but not be limited to, comprehensive health, social, educational, and rehabilitative services to persons requiring intensive short-term and continued treatment in order to encourage them to assume responsibility for their treatment and recovery. It is intended that such persons be provided with emergency service and temporary detention for evaluation when required; that they be admitted to treatment facilities on a voluntary basis when extended or continuing care is needed and unavailable in the community; that involuntary placement be provided only when expert evaluation determines that it is necessary; that any involuntary treatment or examination be accomplished in a setting which is clinically appropriate and most likely to facilitate the person's return to the community as soon as possible; and that individual dignity and human rights be guaranteed to all persons who are admitted to mental health facilities or who are being held under s. 394.463. It is the further intent of the Legislature that the least restrictive means of intervention be employed based on the individual needs of each person, within the scope of available services. History.--s. 2, ch. 71-131; s. 198, ch. 77-147; s. 1, ch. 79-298; s. 4, ch. 82-212; s. 2, ch. 84-285; s. 10, ch. 85-54; s. 1, ch. 91-249; s. 1, ch. 96-169; s. 96, ch. 99-8. 394.455Definitions.--As used in this part, unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the term: (1)"Administrator" means the chief administrative officer of a receiving or treatment facility or his or her designee. (2)"Clinical psychologist" means a psychologist as defined in s. 490.003(7) with 3 years of postdoctoral experience in the practice of clinical psychology, inclusive of the experience required for licensure, or a psychologist employed by a facility operated by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs that qualifies as a receiving or treatment facility under this part. (3)"Clinical record" means all parts of the record required to be maintained and includes all medical records, progress notes, charts, and admission and discharge data, and all other information recorded by a facility which pertains to the patient's hospitalization and treatment. (4)"Clinical social worker" means a person licensed as a clinical social worker under chapter 491. (5)"Community facility" means any community service provider contracting with the department to furnish substance abuse or mental health services under part IV of this chapter. (6)"Community mental health center or clinic" means a publicly funded, not-for-profit center which contracts with the department for the provision of inpatient, outpatient, day treatment, or emergency services. (7)"Court," unless otherwise specified, means the circuit court. (8)"Department" means the Department of Children and Family Services. (9)"Express and informed consent" means consent voluntarily given in writing, by a competent person, after sufficient explanation and disclosure of the subject matter involved to enable the person to make a knowing and willful decision without any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, or other form of constraint or coercion. (10)"Facility" means any hospital, community facility, public or private facility, or receiving or treatment facility providing for the evaluation, diagnosis, care, treatment, training, or hospitalization of persons who appear to have a mental illness or have been diagnosed as having a mental illness. "Facility" does not include any program or entity licensed pursuant to chapter 400. (11)"Guardian" means the natural guardian of a minor, or a person appointed by a court to act on behalf of a ward's person if the ward is a minor or has been adjudicated incapacitated. (12)"Guardian advocate" means a person appointed by a court to make decisions regarding mental health treatment on behalf of a patient who has been found incompetent to consent to treatment pursuant to this part. The guardian advocate may be granted specific additional powers by written order of the court, as provided in this part. (13)"Hospital" means a facility licensed under chapter 395. (14)"Incapacitated" means that a person has been adjudicated incapacitated pursuant to part V of chapter 744 and a guardian of the person has been appointed. (15)"Incompetent to consent to treatment" means that a person's judgment is so affected by his or her mental illness that the person lacks the capacity to make a well-reasoned, willful, and knowing decision concerning his or her medical or mental health treatment. (16)"Law enforcement officer" means a law enforcement officer as defined in s. 943.10. (17)"Mental health overlay program" means a mobile service which provides an independent examination for voluntary admissions and a range of supplemental onsite services to persons with a mental illness in a residential setting such as a nursing home, assisted living facility, adult family-care home, or nonresidential setting such as an adult day care center. Independent examinations provided pursuant to this part through a mental health overlay program must only be provided under contract with the department for this service or be attached to a public receiving facility that is also a community mental health center. (18)"Mental illness" means an impairment of the mental or emotional processes that exercise conscious control of one's actions or of the ability to perceive or understand reality, which impairment substantially interferes with a person's ability to meet the ordinary demands of living, regardless of etiology. For the purposes of this part, the term does not include retardation or developmental disability as defined in chapter 393, intoxication, or conditions manifested only by antisocial behavior or substance abuse impairment. (19)"Mobile crisis response service" means a nonresidential crisis service attached to a public receiving facility and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, through which immediate intensive assessments and interventions, including screening for admission into a receiving facility, take place for the purpose of identifying appropriate treatment services. (20)"Patient" means any person who is held or accepted for mental health treatment. (21)"Physician" means a medical practitioner licensed under chapter 458 or chapter 459 who has experience in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and nervous disorders or a physician employed by a facility operated by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs which qualifies as a receiving or treatment facility under this part. (22)"Private facility" means any hospital or facility operated by a for-profit or not-for-profit corporation or association that provides mental health services and is not a public facility. (23)"Psychiatric nurse" means a registered nurse licensed under part I of chapter 464 who has a master's degree or a doctorate in psychiatric nursing and 2 years of post-master's clinical experience under the supervision of a physician. (24)"Psychiatrist" means a medical practitioner licensed under chapter 458 or chapter 459 who has primarily diagnosed and treated mental and nervous disorders for a period of not less than 3 years, inclusive of psychiatric residency. (25)"Public facility" means any facility that has contracted with the department to provide mental health services to all persons, regardless of their ability to pay, and is receiving state funds for such purpose. (26)"Receiving facility" means any public or private facility designated by the department to receive and hold involuntary patients under emergency conditions or for psychiatric evaluation and to provide short-term treatment. The term does not include a county jail. (27)"Representative" means a person selected to receive notice of proceedings during the time a patient is held in or admitted to a receiving or treatment facility. (28)"Secretary" means the Secretary of Children and Family Services. (29)"Transfer evaluation" means the process, as approved by the appropriate district office of the department, whereby a person who is being considered for placement in a state treatment facility is first evaluated for appropriateness of admission to the facility by a community-based public receiving facility or by a community mental health center or clinic if the public receiving facility is not a community mental health center or clinic. (30)"Treatment facility" means any state-owned, state-operated, or state-supported hospital, center, or clinic designated by the department for extended treatment and hospitalization, beyond that provided for by a receiving facility, of persons who have a mental illness, including facilities of the United States Government, and any private facility designated by the department when rendering such services to a person pursuant to the provisions of this part. Patients treated in facilities of the United States Government shall be solely those whose care is the responsibility of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs. History.--s. 3, ch. 71-131; s. 1, ch. 72-396; s. 1, ch. 73-133; s. 25, ch. 73-334; s. 199, ch. 77-147; s. 2, ch. 79-298; s. 1, ch. 80-398; s. 5, ch. 82-212; s. 46, ch. 83-218; s. 3, ch. 84-285; s. 11, ch. 85-54; s. 11, ch. 86-145; s. 10, ch. 87-238; s. 17, ch. 87-252; s. 41, ch. 89-526; s. 28, ch. 90-306; s. 21, ch. 92-33; s. 65, ch. 93-268; s. 705, ch. 95-148; s. 54, ch. 95-228; s. 2, ch. 96-169; s. 8, ch. 97-82; s. 21, ch. 97-198; s. 213, ch. 97-264; s. 92, ch. 2000-318; s. 1, ch. 2000-349. 394.457Operation and administration.-- (1)ADMINISTRATION.--The Department of Children and Family Services is designated the "Mental Health Authority" of Florida. The department and the Agency for Health Care Administration shall exercise executive and administrative supervision over all mental health facilities, programs, and services. (2)RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT.--The department is responsible for: (a)The planning, evaluation, and implementation of a complete and comprehensive statewide program of mental health, including community services, receiving and treatment facilities, child services, research, and training as authorized and approved by the Legislature, based on the annual program budget of the department. The department is also responsible for the coordination of efforts with other departments and divisions of the state government, county and municipal governments, and private agencies concerned with and providing mental health services. It is responsible for establishing standards, providing technical assistance, and exercising supervision of mental health programs of, and the treatment of patients at, community facilities, other facilities for persons who have a mental illness, and any agency or facility providing services to patients pursuant to this part. (b)The publication and distribution of an information handbook to facilitate understanding of this part, the policies and procedures involved in the implementation of this part, and the responsibilities of the various providers of services under this part. It shall stimulate research by public and private agencies, institutions of higher learning, and hospitals in the interest of the elimination and amelioration of mental illness. (3)POWER TO CONTRACT.--The department may contract to provide, and be provided with, services and facilities in order to carry out its responsibilities under this part with the following agencies: public and private hospitals; receiving and treatment facilities; clinics; laboratories; departments, divisions, and other units of state government; the state colleges and universities; the community colleges; private colleges and universities; counties, municipalities, and any other governmental unit, including facilities of the United States Government; and any other public or private entity which provides or needs facilities or services. Baker Act funds for community inpatient, crisis stabilization, short-term residential treatment, and screening services must be allocated to each county pursuant to the department's funding allocation methodology. Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 287.057(3)(f), contracts for community-based Baker Act services for inpatient, crisis stabilization, short-term residential treatment, and screening provided under this part, other than those with other units of government, to be provided for the department must be awarded using competitive sealed bids when the county commission of the county receiving the services makes a request to the department's district office by January 15 of the contracting year. The district shall not enter into a competitively bid contract under this provision if such action will result in increases of state or local expenditures for Baker Act services within the district. Contracts for these Baker Act services using competitive sealed bids will be effective for 3 years. Services contracted for by the department may be reimbursed by the state at a rate up to 100 percent. The department shall adopt rules establishing minimum standards for such contracted services and facilities and shall make periodic audits and inspections to assure that the contracted services are provided and meet the standards of the department. (4)APPLICATION FOR AND ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS AND GRANTS.--The department may apply for and accept any funds, grants, gifts, or services made available to it by any agency or department of the Federal Government or any other public or private agency or individual in aid of mental health programs. All such moneys shall be deposited in the State Treasury and shall be disbursed as provided by law. (5)RULES.-- (a)The department shall adopt rules establishing forms and procedures relating to the rights and privileges of patients seeking mental health treatment from facilities under this part. (b)The department shall adopt rules necessary for the implementation and administration of the provisions of this part, and a program subject to the provisions of this part shall not be permitted to operate unless rules designed to ensure the protection of the health, safety, and welfare of the patients treated through such program have been adopted. (c)The department shall adopt rules establishing minimum standards for services provided by a mental health overlay program or a mobile crisis response service. (6)PERSONNEL.-- (a)The department shall, by rule, establish minimum standards of education and experience for professional and technical personnel employed in mental health programs, including members of a mobile crisis response service. (b)The department shall design and distribute appropriate materials for the orientation and training of persons actively engaged in implementing the provisions of this part relating to the involuntary examination and placement of persons who are believed to have a mental illness. (7)PAYMENT FOR CARE OF PATIENTS.--Fees and fee collections for patients in state-owned, state-operated, or state-supported treatment facilities shall be according to s. 402.33. History.--s. 1, ch. 57-317; s. 1, ch. 59-222; s. 1, ch. 65-13; s. 3, ch. 65-22; s. 1, ch. 65-145; s. 1, ch. 67-334; ss. 11, 19, 31, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 4, ch. 71-131; s. 70, ch. 72-221; s. 2, ch. 72-396; s. 2, ch. 73-133; s. 25, ch. 73-334; s. 1, ch. 74-233; s. 200, ch. 77-147; s. 19, ch. 78-95; s. 3, ch. 78-332; s. 3, ch. 79-298; s. 6, ch. 82-212; s. 4, ch. 84-285; s. 12, ch. 85-54; s. 11, ch. 87-238; s. 2, ch. 90-225; s. 28, ch. 90-347; s. 7, ch. 91-33; s. 22, ch. 91-57; s. 89, ch. 91-221; s. 2, ch. 91-249; s. 11, ch. 93-156; s. 19, ch. 94-134; s. 19, ch. 94-135; s. 15, ch. 95-152; s. 37, ch. 95-228; s. 124, ch. 95-418; s. 3, ch. 96-169; s. 8, ch. 96-268; s. 209, ch. 96-406; s. 123, ch. 96-410; s. 97, ch. 99-8. Note.--Former s. 965.01(3), s. 402.10. 394.4572Screening of mental health personnel.-- (1)(a)The department and the Agency for Health Care Administration shall require employment screening for mental health personnel using the standards for level 2 screening set forth in chapter 435. "Mental health personnel" includes all program directors, professional clinicians, staff members, and volunteers working in public or private mental health programs and facilities who have direct contact with unmarried patients under the age of 18 years. (b)Students in the health care professions who are interning in a mental health facility licensed under chapter 395, where the primary purpose of the facility is not the treatment of minors, are exempt from the fingerprinting and screening requirements, provided they are under direct supervision in the actual physical presence of a licensed health care professional. (c)Mental health personnel working in a facility licensed under chapter 395 who have less than 15 hours per week of direct contact with patients or who are health care professionals licensed by the Agency for Health Care Administration or a board thereunder are exempt from the fingerprinting and screening requirements, except for persons working in mental health facilities where the primary purpose of the facility is the treatment of minors. (d)A volunteer who assists on an intermittent basis for less than 40 hours per month is exempt from the fingerprinting and screening requirements, provided the volunteer is under direct and constant supervision by persons who meet the screening requirements of paragraph (a). (2)The department or the Agency for Health Care Administration may grant exemptions from disqualification as provided in s. 435.06. (3)Prospective mental health personnel who have previously been fingerprinted or screened pursuant to this chapter, chapter 393, chapter 397, chapter 402, or chapter 409, or teachers who have been fingerprinted pursuant to chapter 231, who have not been unemployed for more than 90 days thereafter, and who under the penalty of perjury attest to the completion of such fingerprinting or screening and to compliance with the provisions of this section and the standards for level 1 screening contained in chapter 435, shall not be required to be refingerprinted or rescreened in order to comply with any screening requirements of this part. History.--s. 1, ch. 87-128; s. 1, ch. 87-141; s. 23, ch. 93-39; s. 4, ch. 96-169. 394.4573Continuity of care management system; measures of performance; reports.-- (1)For the purposes of this section: (a)"Case management" means those activities aimed at assessing client needs, planning services, linking the service system to a client, coordinating the various system components, monitoring service delivery, and evaluating the effect of service delivery. (b)"Case manager" means an individual who works with clients, and their families and significant others, to provide case management. (c)"Client manager" means an employee of the department who is assigned to specific provider agencies and geographic areas to ensure that the full range of needed services is available to clients. (d)"Continuity of care management system" means a system that assures, within available resources, that clients have access to the full array of services within the mental health services delivery system. (2)The department is directed to implement a continuity of care management system for the provision of mental health care, through the provision of client and case management, including clients referred from state treatment facilities to community mental health facilities. Such system shall include a network of client managers and case managers throughout the state designed to: (a)Reduce the possibility of a client's admission or readmission to a state treatment facility. (b)Provide for the creation or designation of an agency in each county to provide single intake services for each person seeking mental health services. Such agency shall provide information and referral services necessary to ensure that clients receive the most appropriate and least restrictive form of care, based on the individual needs of the person seeking treatment. Such agency shall have a single telephone number, operating 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, where practicable, at a central location, where each client will have a central record. (c)Advocate on behalf of the client to ensure that all appropriate services are afforded to the client in a timely and dignified manner. (d)Require that any public receiving facility initiating a patient transfer to a licensed hospital for acute care mental health services not accessible through the public receiving facility shall notify the hospital of such transfer and send all records relating to the emergency psychiatric or medical condition. (3)The department is directed to develop and include in contracts with service providers measures of performance with regard to goals and objectives as specified in the state plan. Such measures shall use, to the extent practical, existing data collection methods and reports and shall not require, as a result of this subsection, additional reports on the part of service providers. The department shall plan monitoring visits of community mental health facilities with other state, federal, and local governmental and private agencies charged with monitoring such facilities. (4)The department is directed to submit a report to the Legislature, prior to April 1 of each year, outlining departmental progress towards the implementation of the minimum staffing patterns' standards in state mental health treatment facilities. The report shall contain, by treatment facility, information regarding goals and objectives and departmental performance toward meeting each such goal and objective. History.--ss. 3, 4, 5, ch. 80-384; s. 5, ch. 84-285; s. 1, ch. 89-211; s. 5, ch. 96-169. 394.4574Department responsibilities for a mental health resident who resides in an assisted living facility that holds a limited mental health license.-- (1)The term "mental health resident," for purposes of this section, means an individual who receives social security disability income due to a mental disorder as determined by the Social Security Administration or receives supplemental security income due to a mental disorder as determined by the Social Security Administration and receives optional state supplementation. (2)The department must ensure that: (a)A mental health resident has been assessed by a psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, or psychiatric nurse, or an individual who is supervised by one of these professionals, and determined to be appropriate to reside in an assisted living facility. The documentation must be provided to the administrator of the facility within 30 days after the mental health resident has been admitted to the facility. An evaluation completed upon discharge from a state mental hospital meets the requirements of this subsection related to appropriateness for placement as a mental health resident if it was completed within 90 days prior to admission to the facility. (b)A cooperative agreement, as required in s. 400.4075, is developed between the mental health care services provider that serves a mental health resident and the administrator of the assisted living facility with a limited mental health license in which the mental health resident is living. Any entity that provides Medicaid prepaid health plan services shall ensure the appropriate coordination of health care services with an assisted living facility in cases where a Medicaid recipient is both a member of the entity's prepaid health plan and a resident of the assisted living facility. If the entity is at risk for Medicaid targeted case management and behavioral health services, the entity shall inform the assisted living facility of the procedures to follow should an emergent condition arise. (c)The community living support plan, as defined in s. 400.402, has been prepared by a mental health resident and a mental health case manager of that resident in consultation with the administrator of the facility or the administrator's designee. The plan must be provided to the administrator of the assisted living facility with a limited mental health license in which the mental health resident lives. The support plan and the agreement may be in one document. (d)The assisted living facility with a limited mental health license is provided with documentation that the individual meets the definition of a mental health resident. (e)The mental health services provider assigns a case manager to each mental health resident who lives in an assisted living facility with a limited mental health license. The case manager is responsible for coordinating the development of and implementation of the community living support plan defined in s. 400.402. The plan must be updated at least annually. (3)The Secretary of Children and Family Services, in consultation with the Agency for Health Care Administration, shall annually require each district administrator to develop, with community input, detailed plans that demonstrate how the district will ensure the provision of state-funded mental health and substance abuse treatment services to residents of assisted living facilities that hold a limited mental health license. These plans must be consistent with the substance abuse and mental health district plan developed pursuant to s. 394.75 and must address case management services; access to consumer-operated drop-in centers; access to services during evenings, weekends, and holidays; supervision of the clinical needs of the residents; and access to emergency psychiatric care. History.--s. 9, ch. 97-82; s. 23, ch. 98-80; s. 12, ch. 2000-349. 394.458Introduction or removal of certain articles unlawful; penalty.-- (1)(a)Except as authorized by law or as specifically authorized by the person in charge of each hospital providing mental health services under this part, it is unlawful to introduce into or upon the grounds of such hospital, or to take or attempt to take or send therefrom, any of the following articles, which are hereby declared to be contraband for the purposes of this section: 1.Any intoxicating beverage or beverage which causes or may cause an intoxicating effect; 2.Any controlled substance as defined in chapter 893; or 3.Any firearms or deadly weapon. (b)It is unlawful to transmit to, or attempt to transmit to, or cause or attempt to cause to be transmitted to, or received by, any patient of any hospital providing mental health services under this part any article or thing declared by this section to be contraband, at any place which is outside of the grounds of such hospital, except as authorized by law or as specifically authorized by the person in charge of such hospital. (2)A person who violates any provision of this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. History.--s. 1, ch. 75-253; s. 201, ch. 77-147; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 6, ch. 96-169. 394.459Rights of patients.-- (1)RIGHT TO INDIVIDUAL DIGNITY.--It is the policy of this state that the individual dignity of the patient shall be respected at all times and upon all occasions, including any occasion when the patient is taken into custody, held, or transported. Procedures, facilities, vehicles, and restraining devices utilized for criminals or those accused of crime shall not be used in connection with persons who have a mental illness, except for the protection of the patient or others. Persons who have a mental illness but who are not charged with a criminal offense shall not be detained or incarcerated in the jails of this state. A person who is receiving treatment for mental illness in a facility shall not be deprived of any constitutional rights. However, if such a person is adjudicated incapacitated, his or her rights may be limited to the same extent the rights of any incapacitated person are limited by law. (2)RIGHT TO TREATMENT.-- (a)A person shall not be denied treatment for mental illness and services shall not be delayed at a receiving or treatment facility because of inability to pay. However, every reasonable effort to collect appropriate reimbursement for the cost of providing mental health services to persons able to pay for services, including insurance or third-party payments, shall be made by facilities providing services pursuant to this part. (b)It is further the policy of the state that the least restrictive appropriate available treatment be utilized based on the individual needs and best interests of the patient and consistent with optimum improvement of the patient's condition. (c)Each person who remains at a receiving or treatment facility for more than 12 hours shall be given a physical examination by a health practitioner authorized by law to give such examinations, within 24 hours after arrival at such facility. (d)Every patient in a facility shall be afforded the opportunity to participate in activities designed to enhance self-image and the beneficial effects of other treatments, as determined by the facility. (e)Not more than 5 days after admission to a facility, each patient shall have and receive an individualized treatment plan in writing which the patient has had an opportunity to assist in preparing and to review prior to its implementation. The plan shall include a space for the patient's comments. (3)RIGHT TO EXPRESS AND INFORMED PATIENT CONSENT.-- (a)Each patient entering a facility shall be asked to give express and informed consent for admission and treatment. If the patient has been adjudicated incapacitated or found to be incompetent to consent to treatment, express and informed consent to treatment shall be sought instead from the patient's guardian or guardian advocate. If the patient is a minor, express and informed consent for admission and treatment shall also be requested from the patient's guardian. Express and informed consent for admission and treatment of a patient under 18 years of age shall be required from the patient's guardian, unless the minor is seeking outpatient crisis intervention services under s. 394.4784. Express and informed consent for admission and treatment given by a patient who is under 18 years of age shall not be a condition of admission when the patient's guardian gives express and informed consent for the patient's admission pursuant to s. 394.463 or s. 394.467. Prior to giving consent, the following information shall be disclosed to the patient, or to the patient's guardian if the patient is 18 years of age or older and has been adjudicated incapacitated, or to the patient's guardian advocate if the patient has been found to be incompetent to consent to treatment, or to both the patient and the guardian if the patient is a minor: the reason for admission, the proposed treatment, the purpose of the treatment to be provided, the common side effects thereof, alternative treatment modalities, the approximate length of care, and that any consent given by a patient may be revoked orally or in writing prior to or during the treatment period by the patient, the guardian advocate, or the guardian. (b)In the case of medical procedures requiring the use of a general anesthetic or electroconvulsive treatment, and prior to performing the procedure, express and informed consent shall be obtained from the patient if the patient is legally competent, from the guardian of a minor patient, from the guardian of a patient who has been adjudicated incapacitated, or from the guardian advocate of the patient if the guardian advocate has been given express court authority to consent to medical procedures or electroconvulsive treatment as provided under s. 394.4598. (c)When the department is the legal guardian of a patient, or is the custodian of a patient whose physician is unwilling to perform a medical procedure, including an electroconvulsive treatment, based solely on the patient's consent and whose guardian or guardian advocate is unknown or unlocatable, the court shall hold a hearing to determine the medical necessity of the medical procedure. The patient shall be physically present, unless the patient's medical condition precludes such presence, represented by counsel, and provided the right and opportunity to be confronted with, and to cross-examine, all witnesses alleging the medical necessity of such procedure. In such proceedings, the burden of proof by clear and convincing evidence shall be on the party alleging the medical necessity of the procedure. (d)The administrator of a receiving or treatment facility may, upon the recommendation of the patient's attending physician, authorize emergency medical treatment, including a surgical procedure, if such treatment is deemed lifesaving, or if the situation threatens serious bodily harm to the patient, and permission of the patient or the patient's guardian or guardian advocate cannot be obtained.
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  • Baker Act Text

    CHAPTER 394
    MENTAL HEALTH

    PART I
    FLORIDA MENTAL HEALTH ACT (ss. 394.451-394.4789)

    PART II
    INTERSTATE COMPACT ON MENTAL HEALTH (ss. 394.479-394.484)

    PART III
    COMPREHENSIVE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
    (ss. 394.490-394.4985)

    PART IV
    COMMUNITY SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
    (ss. 394.65-394.9081)

    PART V
    INVOLUNTARY CIVIL COMMITMENT OF SEXUALLY VIOLENT PREDATORS
    (ss. 394.910-394.931)

    PART I
    FLORIDA MENTAL HEALTH ACT

    394.451 Short title.

    394.453 Legislative intent.

    394.455 Definitions.

    394.457 Operation and administration.

    394.4572 Screening of mental health personnel.

    394.4573 Continuity of care management system; measures of performance; reports.

    394.4574 Department responsibilities for a mental health resident who resides in an assisted living facility that holds a limited mental health license.

    394.458 Introduction or removal of certain articles unlawful; penalty.

    394.459 Rights of patients.

    394.4595 Florida statewide and local advocacy councils; access to patients and records.

    394.4597 Persons to be notified; patient's representative.

    394.4598 Guardian advocate.

    394.4599 Notice.

    394.460 Rights of professionals.

    394.461 Designation of receiving and treatment facilities.

    394.4615 Clinical records; confidentiality.

    394.462 Transportation.

    394.4625 Voluntary admissions.

    394.463 Involuntary examination.

    394.467 Involuntary placement.

    394.4672 Procedure for placement of veteran with federal agency.

    394.4674 Plan and report.

    394.468 Admission and discharge procedures.

    394.4685 Transfer of patients among facilities.

    394.469 Discharge of involuntary patients.

    394.473 Attorney's fee; expert witness fee.

    394.475 Acceptance, examination, and involuntary placement of Florida residents from out-of-state mental health authorities.

    394.4781 Residential care for psychotic and emotionally disturbed children.

    394.4784 Minors; access to outpatient crisis intervention services and treatment.

    394.4785 Children and adolescents; admission and placement in mental facilities.

    394.4786 Intent.

    394.47865 South Florida State Hospital; privatization.

    394.4787 Definitions; ss. 394.4786, 394.4787, 394.4788, and 394.4789.

    394.4788 Use of certain PMATF funds for the purchase of acute care mental health services.

    394.4789 Establishment of referral process and eligibility determination.

    394.451 Short title.--This part shall be known as "The Florida Mental Health Act" or "The Baker Act."

    History.--s. 1, ch. 71-131.

    394.453 Legislative intent.--It is the intent of the Legislature to authorize and direct the Department of Children and Family Services to evaluate, research, plan, and recommend to the Governor and the Legislature programs designed to reduce the occurrence, severity, duration, and disabling aspects of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. It is the intent of the Legislature that treatment programs for such disorders shall include, but not be limited to, comprehensive health, social, educational, and rehabilitative services to persons requiring intensive short-term and continued treatment in order to encourage them to assume responsibility for their treatment and recovery. It is intended that such persons be provided with emergency service and temporary detention for evaluation when required; that they be admitted to treatment facilities on a voluntary basis when extended or continuing care is needed and unavailable in the community; that involuntary placement be provided only when expert evaluation determines that it is necessary; that any involuntary treatment or examination be accomplished in a setting which is clinically appropriate and most likely to facilitate the person's return to the community as soon as possible; and that individual dignity and human rights be guaranteed to all persons who are admitted to mental health facilities or who are being held under s. 394.463. It is the further intent of the Legislature that the least restrictive means of intervention be employed based on the individual needs of each person, within the scope of available services.

    History.--s. 2, ch. 71-131; s. 198, ch. 77-147; s. 1, ch. 79-298; s. 4, ch. 82-212; s. 2, ch. 84-285; s. 10, ch. 85-54; s. 1, ch. 91-249; s. 1, ch. 96-169; s. 96, ch. 99-8.

    394.455 Definitions.--As used in this part, unless the context clearly requires otherwise, the term:

    (1) "Administrator" means the chief administrative officer of a receiving or treatment facility or his or her designee.

    (2) "Clinical psychologist" means a psychologist as defined in s. 490.003(7) with 3 years of postdoctoral experience in the practice of clinical psychology, inclusive of the experience required for licensure, or a psychologist employed by a facility operated by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs that qualifies as a receiving or treatment facility under this part.

    (3) "Clinical record" means all parts of the record required to be maintained and includes all medical records, progress notes, charts, and admission and discharge data, and all other information recorded by a facility which pertains to the patient's hospitalization and treatment.

    (4) "Clinical social worker" means a person licensed as a clinical social worker under chapter 491.

    (5) "Community facility" means any community service provider contracting with the department to furnish substance abuse or mental health services under part IV of this chapter.

    (6) "Community mental health center or clinic" means a publicly funded, not-for-profit center which contracts with the department for the provision of inpatient, outpatient, day treatment, or emergency services.

    (7) "Court," unless otherwise specified, means the circuit court.

    (8) "Department" means the Department of Children and Family Services.

    (9) "Express and informed consent" means consent voluntarily given in writing, by a competent person, after sufficient explanation and disclosure of the subject matter involved to enable the person to make a knowing and willful decision without any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, or other form of constraint or coercion.

    (10) "Facility" means any hospital, community facility, public or private facility, or receiving or treatment facility providing for the evaluation, diagnosis, care, treatment, training, or hospitalization of persons who appear to have a mental illness or have been diagnosed as having a mental illness. "Facility" does not include any program or entity licensed pursuant to chapter 400.

    (11) "Guardian" means the natural guardian of a minor, or a person appointed by a court to act on behalf of a ward's person if the ward is a minor or has been adjudicated incapacitated.

    (12) "Guardian advocate" means a person appointed by a court to make decisions regarding mental health treatment on behalf of a patient who has been found incompetent to consent to treatment pursuant to this part. The guardian advocate may be granted specific additional powers by written order of the court, as provided in this part.

    (13) "Hospital" means a facility licensed under chapter 395.

    (14) "Incapacitated" means that a person has been adjudicated incapacitated pursuant to part V of chapter 744 and a guardian of the person has been appointed.

    (15) "Incompetent to consent to treatment" means that a person's judgment is so affected by his or her mental illness that the person lacks the capacity to make a well-reasoned, willful, and knowing decision concerning his or her medical or mental health treatment.

    (16) "Law enforcement officer" means a law enforcement officer as defined in s. 943.10.

    (17) "Mental health overlay program" means a mobile service which provides an independent examination for voluntary admissions and a range of supplemental onsite services to persons with a mental illness in a residential setting such as a nursing home, assisted living facility, adult family-care home, or nonresidential setting such as an adult day care center. Independent examinations provided pursuant to this part through a mental health overlay program must only be provided under contract with the department for this service or be attached to a public receiving facility that is also a community mental health center.

    (18) "Mental illness" means an impairment of the mental or emotional processes that exercise conscious control of one's actions or of the ability to perceive or understand reality, which impairment substantially interferes with a person's ability to meet the ordinary demands of living, regardless of etiology. For the purposes of this part, the term does not include retardation or developmental disability as defined in chapter 393, intoxication, or conditions manifested only by antisocial behavior or substance abuse impairment.

    (19) "Mobile crisis response service" means a nonresidential crisis service attached to a public receiving facility and available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, through which immediate intensive assessments and interventions, including screening for admission into a receiving facility, take place for the purpose of identifying appropriate treatment services.

    (20) "Patient" means any person who is held or accepted for mental health treatment.

    (21) "Physician" means a medical practitioner licensed under chapter 458 or chapter 459 who has experience in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and nervous disorders or a physician employed by a facility operated by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs which qualifies as a receiving or treatment facility under this part.

    (22) "Private facility" means any hospital or facility operated by a for-profit or not-for-profit corporation or association that provides mental health services and is not a public facility.

    (23) "Psychiatric nurse" means a registered nurse licensed under part I of chapter 464 who has a master's degree or a doctorate in psychiatric nursing and 2 years of post-master's clinical experience under the supervision of a physician.

    (24) "Psychiatrist" means a medical practitioner licensed under chapter 458 or chapter 459 who has primarily diagnosed and treated mental and nervous disorders for a period of not less than 3 years, inclusive of psychiatric residency.

    (25) "Public facility" means any facility that has contracted with the department to provide mental health services to all persons, regardless of their ability to pay, and is receiving state funds for such purpose.

    (26) "Receiving facility" means any public or private facility designated by the department to receive and hold involuntary patients under emergency conditions or for psychiatric evaluation and to provide short-term treatment. The term does not include a county jail.

    (27) "Representative" means a person selected to receive notice of proceedings during the time a patient is held in or admitted to a receiving or treatment facility.

    (28) "Secretary" means the Secretary of Children and Family Services.

    (29) "Transfer evaluation" means the process, as approved by the appropriate district office of the department, whereby a person who is being considered for placement in a state treatment facility is first evaluated for appropriateness of admission to the facility by a community-based public receiving facility or by a community mental health center or clinic if the public receiving facility is not a community mental health center or clinic.

    (30) "Treatment facility" means any state-owned, state-operated, or state-supported hospital, center, or clinic designated by the department for extended treatment and hospitalization, beyond that provided for by a receiving facility, of persons who have a mental illness, including facilities of the United States Government, and any private facility designated by the department when rendering such services to a person pursuant to the provisions of this part. Patients treated in facilities of the United States Government shall be solely those whose care is the responsibility of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs.

    History.--s. 3, ch. 71-131; s. 1, ch. 72-396; s. 1, ch. 73-133; s. 25, ch. 73-334; s. 199, ch. 77-147; s. 2, ch. 79-298; s. 1, ch. 80-398; s. 5, ch. 82-212; s. 46, ch. 83-218; s. 3, ch. 84-285; s. 11, ch. 85-54; s. 11, ch. 86-145; s. 10, ch. 87-238; s. 17, ch. 87-252; s. 41, ch. 89-526; s. 28, ch. 90-306; s. 21, ch. 92-33; s. 65, ch. 93-268; s. 705, ch. 95-148; s. 54, ch. 95-228; s. 2, ch. 96-169; s. 8, ch. 97-82; s. 21, ch. 97-198; s. 213, ch. 97-264; s. 92, ch. 2000-318; s. 1, ch. 2000-349.

    394.457 Operation and administration.--

    (1) ADMINISTRATION.--The Department of Children and Family Services is designated the "Mental Health Authority" of Florida. The department and the Agency for Health Care Administration shall exercise executive and administrative supervision over all mental health facilities, programs, and services.

    (2) RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE DEPARTMENT.--The department is responsible for:

    (a) The planning, evaluation, and implementation of a complete and comprehensive statewide program of mental health, including community services, receiving and treatment facilities, child services, research, and training as authorized and approved by the Legislature, based on the annual program budget of the department. The department is also responsible for the coordination of efforts with other departments and divisions of the state government, county and municipal governments, and private agencies concerned with and providing mental health services. It is responsible for establishing standards, providing technical assistance, and exercising supervision of mental health programs of, and the treatment of patients at, community facilities, other facilities for persons who have a mental illness, and any agency or facility providing services to patients pursuant to this part.

    (b) The publication and distribution of an information handbook to facilitate understanding of this part, the policies and procedures involved in the implementation of this part, and the responsibilities of the various providers of services under this part. It shall stimulate research by public and private agencies, institutions of higher learning, and hospitals in the interest of the elimination and amelioration of mental illness.

    (3) POWER TO CONTRACT.--The department may contract to provide, and be provided with, services and facilities in order to carry out its responsibilities under this part with the following agencies: public and private hospitals; receiving and treatment facilities; clinics; laboratories; departments, divisions, and other units of state government; the state colleges and universities; the community colleges; private colleges and universities; counties, municipalities, and any other governmental unit, including facilities of the United States Government; and any other public or private entity which provides or needs facilities or services. Baker Act funds for community inpatient, crisis stabilization, short-term residential treatment, and screening services must be allocated to each county pursuant to the department's funding allocation methodology. Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 287.057(3)(f), contracts for community-based Baker Act services for inpatient, crisis stabilization, short-term residential treatment, and screening provided under this part, other than those with other units of government, to be provided for the department must be awarded using competitive sealed bids when the county commission of the county receiving the services makes a request to the department's district office by January 15 of the contracting year. The district shall not enter into a competitively bid contract under this provision if such action will result in increases of state or local expenditures for Baker Act services within the district. Contracts for these Baker Act services using competitive sealed bids will be effective for 3 years. Services contracted for by the department may be reimbursed by the state at a rate up to 100 percent. The department shall adopt rules establishing minimum standards for such contracted services and facilities and shall make periodic audits and inspections to assure that the contracted services are provided and meet the standards of the department.

    (4) APPLICATION FOR AND ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS AND GRANTS.--The department may apply for and accept any funds, grants, gifts, or services made available to it by any agency or department of the Federal Government or any other public or private agency or individual in aid of mental health programs. All such moneys shall be deposited in the State Treasury and shall be disbursed as provided by law.

    (5) RULES.--

    (a) The department shall adopt rules establishing forms and procedures relating to the rights and privileges of patients seeking mental health treatment from facilities under this part.

    (b) The department shall adopt rules necessary for the implementation and administration of the provisions of this part, and a program subject to the provisions of this part shall not be permitted to operate unless rules designed to ensure the protection of the health, safety, and welfare of the patients treated through such program have been adopted.

    (c) The department shall adopt rules establishing minimum standards for services provided by a mental health overlay program or a mobile crisis response service.

    (6) PERSONNEL.--

    (a) The department shall, by rule, establish minimum standards of education and experience for professional and technical personnel employed in mental health programs, including members of a mobile crisis response service.

    (b) The department shall design and distribute appropriate materials for the orientation and training of persons actively engaged in implementing the provisions of this part relating to the involuntary examination and placement of persons who are believed to have a mental illness.

    (7) PAYMENT FOR CARE OF PATIENTS.--Fees and fee collections for patients in state-owned, state-operated, or state-supported treatment facilities shall be according to s. 402.33.

    History.--s. 1, ch. 57-317; s. 1, ch. 59-222; s. 1, ch. 65-13; s. 3, ch. 65-22; s. 1, ch. 65-145; s. 1, ch. 67-334; ss. 11, 19, 31, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 4, ch. 71-131; s. 70, ch. 72-221; s. 2, ch. 72-396; s. 2, ch. 73-133; s. 25, ch. 73-334; s. 1, ch. 74-233; s. 200, ch. 77-147; s. 19, ch. 78-95; s. 3, ch. 78-332; s. 3, ch. 79-298; s. 6, ch. 82-212; s. 4, ch. 84-285; s. 12, ch. 85-54; s. 11, ch. 87-238; s. 2, ch. 90-225; s. 28, ch. 90-347; s. 7, ch. 91-33; s. 22, ch. 91-57; s. 89, ch. 91-221; s. 2, ch. 91-249; s. 11, ch. 93-156; s. 19, ch. 94-134; s. 19, ch. 94-135; s. 15, ch. 95-152; s. 37, ch. 95-228; s. 124, ch. 95-418; s. 3, ch. 96-169; s. 8, ch. 96-268; s. 209, ch. 96-406; s. 123, ch. 96-410; s. 97, ch. 99-8.

    Note.--Former s. 965.01(3), s. 402.10.

    394.4572 Screening of mental health personnel.--

    (1)(a) The department and the Agency for Health Care Administration shall require employment screening for mental health personnel using the standards for level 2 screening set forth in chapter 435. "Mental health personnel" includes all program directors, professional clinicians, staff members, and volunteers working in public or private mental health programs and facilities who have direct contact with unmarried patients under the age of 18 years.

    (b) Students in the health care professions who are interning in a mental health facility licensed under chapter 395, where the primary purpose of the facility is not the treatment of minors, are exempt from the fingerprinting and screening requirements, provided they are under direct supervision in the actual physical presence of a licensed health care professional.

    (c) Mental health personnel working in a facility licensed under chapter 395 who have less than 15 hours per week of direct contact with patients or who are health care professionals licensed by the Agency for Health Care Administration or a board thereunder are exempt from the fingerprinting and screening requirements, except for persons working in mental health facilities where the primary purpose of the facility is the treatment of minors.

    (d) A volunteer who assists on an intermittent basis for less than 40 hours per month is exempt from the fingerprinting and screening requirements, provided the volunteer is under direct and constant supervision by persons who meet the screening requirements of paragraph (a).

    (2) The department or the Agency for Health Care Administration may grant exemptions from disqualification as provided in s. 435.06.

    (3) Prospective mental health personnel who have previously been fingerprinted or screened pursuant to this chapter, chapter 393, chapter 397, chapter 402, or chapter 409, or teachers who have been fingerprinted pursuant to chapter 231, who have not been unemployed for more than 90 days thereafter, and who under the penalty of perjury attest to the completion of such fingerprinting or screening and to compliance with the provisions of this section and the standards for level 1 screening contained in chapter 435, shall not be required to be refingerprinted or rescreened in order to comply with any screening requirements of this part.

    History.--s. 1, ch. 87-128; s. 1, ch. 87-141; s. 23, ch. 93-39; s. 4, ch. 96-169.

    394.4573 Continuity of care management system; measures of performance; reports.--

    (1) For the purposes of this section:

    (a) "Case management" means those activities aimed at assessing client needs, planning services, linking the service system to a client, coordinating the various system components, monitoring service delivery, and evaluating the effect of service delivery.

    (b) "Case manager" means an individual who works with clients, and their families and significant others, to provide case management.

    (c) "Client manager" means an employee of the department who is assigned to specific provider agencies and geographic areas to ensure that the full range of needed services is available to clients.

    (d) "Continuity of care management system" means a system that assures, within available resources, that clients have access to the full array of services within the mental health services delivery system.

    (2) The department is directed to implement a continuity of care management system for the provision of mental health care, through the provision of client and case management, including clients referred from state treatment facilities to community mental health facilities. Such system shall include a network of client managers and case managers throughout the state designed to:

    (a) Reduce the possibility of a client's admission or readmission to a state treatment facility.

    (b) Provide for the creation or designation of an agency in each county to provide single intake services for each person seeking mental health services. Such agency shall provide information and referral services necessary to ensure that clients receive the most appropriate and least restrictive form of care, based on the individual needs of the person seeking treatment. Such agency shall have a single telephone number, operating 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, where practicable, at a central location, where each client will have a central record.

    (c) Advocate on behalf of the client to ensure that all appropriate services are afforded to the client in a timely and dignified manner.

    (d) Require that any public receiving facility initiating a patient transfer to a licensed hospital for acute care mental health services not accessible through the public receiving facility shall notify the hospital of such transfer and send all records relating to the emergency psychiatric or medical condition.

    (3) The department is directed to develop and include in contracts with service providers measures of performance with regard to goals and objectives as specified in the state plan. Such measures shall use, to the extent practical, existing data collection methods and reports and shall not require, as a result of this subsection, additional reports on the part of service providers. The department shall plan monitoring visits of community mental health facilities with other state, federal, and local governmental and private agencies charged with monitoring such facilities.

    (4) The department is directed to submit a report to the Legislature, prior to April 1 of each year, outlining departmental progress towards the implementation of the minimum staffing patterns' standards in state mental health treatment facilities. The report shall contain, by treatment facility, information regarding goals and objectives and departmental performance toward meeting each such goal and objective.

    History.--ss. 3, 4, 5, ch. 80-384; s. 5, ch. 84-285; s. 1, ch. 89-211; s. 5, ch. 96-169.

    394.4574 Department responsibilities for a mental health resident who resides in an assisted living facility that holds a limited mental health license.--

    (1) The term "mental health resident," for purposes of this section, means an individual who receives social security disability income due to a mental disorder as determined by the Social Security Administration or receives supplemental security income due to a mental disorder as determined by the Social Security Administration and receives optional state supplementation.

    (2) The department must ensure that:

    (a) A mental health resident has been assessed by a psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, or psychiatric nurse, or an individual who is supervised by one of these professionals, and determined to be appropriate to reside in an assisted living facility. The documentation must be provided to the administrator of the facility within 30 days after the mental health resident has been admitted to the facility. An evaluation completed upon discharge from a state mental hospital meets the requirements of this subsection related to appropriateness for placement as a mental health resident if it was completed within 90 days prior to admission to the facility.

    (b) A cooperative agreement, as required in s. 400.4075, is developed between the mental health care services provider that serves a mental health resident and the administrator of the assisted living facility with a limited mental health license in which the mental health resident is living. Any entity that provides Medicaid prepaid health plan services shall ensure the appropriate coordination of health care services with an assisted living facility in cases where a Medicaid recipient is both a member of the entity's prepaid health plan and a resident of the assisted living facility. If the entity is at risk for Medicaid targeted case management and behavioral health services, the entity shall inform the assisted living facility of the procedures to follow should an emergent condition arise.

    (c) The community living support plan, as defined in s. 400.402, has been prepared by a mental health resident and a mental health case manager of that resident in consultation with the administrator of the facility or the administrator's designee. The plan must be provided to the administrator of the assisted living facility with a limited mental health license in which the mental health resident lives. The support plan and the agreement may be in one document.

    (d) The assisted living facility with a limited mental health license is provided with documentation that the individual meets the definition of a mental health resident.

    (e) The mental health services provider assigns a case manager to each mental health resident who lives in an assisted living facility with a limited mental health license. The case manager is responsible for coordinating the development of and implementation of the community living support plan defined in s. 400.402. The plan must be updated at least annually.

    (3) The Secretary of Children and Family Services, in consultation with the Agency for Health Care Administration, shall annually require each district administrator to develop, with community input, detailed plans that demonstrate how the district will ensure the provision of state-funded mental health and substance abuse treatment services to residents of assisted living facilities that hold a limited mental health license. These plans must be consistent with the substance abuse and mental health district plan developed pursuant to s. 394.75 and must address case management services; access to consumer-operated drop-in centers; access to services during evenings, weekends, and holidays; supervision of the clinical needs of the residents; and access to emergency psychiatric care.

    History.--s. 9, ch. 97-82; s. 23, ch. 98-80; s. 12, ch. 2000-349.

    394.458 Introduction or removal of certain articles unlawful; penalty.--

    (1)(a) Except as authorized by law or as specifically authorized by the person in charge of each hospital providing mental health services under this part, it is unlawful to introduce into or upon the grounds of such hospital, or to take or attempt to take or send therefrom, any of the following articles, which are hereby declared to be contraband for the purposes of this section:

    1. Any intoxicating beverage or beverage which causes or may cause an intoxicating effect;

    2. Any controlled substance as defined in chapter 893; or

    3. Any firearms or deadly weapon.

    (b) It is unlawful to transmit to, or attempt to transmit to, or cause or attempt to cause to be transmitted to, or received by, any patient of any hospital providing mental health services under this part any article or thing declared by this section to be contraband, at any place which is outside of the grounds of such hospital, except as authorized by law or as specifically authorized by the person in charge of such hospital.

    (2) A person who violates any provision of this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

    History.--s. 1, ch. 75-253; s. 201, ch. 77-147; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 6, ch. 96-169.

    394.459 Rights of patients.--

    (1) RIGHT TO INDIVIDUAL DIGNITY.--It is the policy of this state that the individual dignity of the patient shall be respected at all times and upon all occasions, including any occasion when the patient is taken into custody, held, or transported. Procedures, facilities, vehicles, and restraining devices utilized for criminals or those accused of crime shall not be used in connection with persons who have a mental illness, except for the protection of the patient or others. Persons who have a mental illness but who are not charged with a criminal offense shall not be detained or incarcerated in the jails of this state. A person who is receiving treatment for mental illness in a facility shall not be deprived of any constitutional rights. However, if such a person is adjudicated incapacitated, his or her rights may be limited to the same extent the rights of any incapacitated person are limited by law.

    (2) RIGHT TO TREATMENT.--

    (a) A person shall not be denied treatment for mental illness and services shall not be delayed at a receiving or treatment facility because of inability to pay. However, every reasonable effort to collect appropriate reimbursement for the cost of providing mental health services to persons able to pay for services, including insurance or third-party payments, shall be made by facilities providing services pursuant to this part.

    (b) It is further the policy of the state that the least restrictive appropriate available treatment be utilized based on the individual needs and best interests of the patient and consistent with optimum improvement of the patient's condition.

    (c) Each person who remains at a receiving or treatment facility for more than 12 hours shall be given a physical examination by a health practitioner authorized by law to give such examinations, within 24 hours after arrival at such facility.

    (d) Every patient in a facility shall be afforded the opportunity to participate in activities designed to enhance self-image and the beneficial effects of other treatments, as determined by the facility.

    (e) Not more than 5 days after admission to a facility, each patient shall have and receive an individualized treatment plan in writing which the patient has had an opportunity to assist in preparing and to review prior to its implementation. The plan shall include a space for the patient's comments.

    (3) RIGHT TO EXPRESS AND INFORMED PATIENT CONSENT.--

    (a) Each patient entering a facility shall be asked to give express and informed consent for admission and treatment. If the patient has been adjudicated incapacitated or found to be incompetent to consent to treatment, express and informed consent to treatment shall be sought instead from the patient's guardian or guardian advocate. If the patient is a minor, express and informed consent for admission and treatment shall also be requested from the patient's guardian. Express and informed consent for admission and treatment of a patient under 18 years of age shall be required from the patient's guardian, unless the minor is seeking outpatient crisis intervention services under s. 394.4784. Express and informed consent for admission and treatment given by a patient who is under 18 years of age shall not be a condition of admission when the patient's guardian gives express and informed consent for the patient's admission pursuant to s. 394.463 or s. 394.467. Prior to giving consent, the following information shall be disclosed to the patient, or to the patient's guardian if the patient is 18 years of age or older and has been adjudicated incapacitated, or to the patient's guardian advocate if the patient has been found to be incompetent to consent to treatment, or to both the patient and the guardian if the patient is a minor: the reason for admission, the proposed treatment, the purpose of the treatment to be provided, the common side effects thereof, alternative treatment modalities, the approximate length of care, and that any consent given by a patient may be revoked orally or in writing prior to or during the treatment period by the patient, the guardian advocate, or the guardian.

    (b) In the case of medical procedures requiring the use of a general anesthetic or electroconvulsive treatment, and prior to performing the procedure, express and informed consent shall be obtained from the patient if the patient is legally competent, from the guardian of a minor patient, from the guardian of a patient who has been adjudicated incapacitated, or from the guardian advocate of the patient if the guardian advocate has been given express court authority to consent to medical procedures or electroconvulsive treatment as provided under s. 394.4598.

    (c) When the department is the legal guardian of a patient, or is the custodian of a patient whose physician is unwilling to perform a medical procedure, including an electroconvulsive treatment, based solely on the patient's consent and whose guardian or guardian advocate is unknown or unlocatable, the court shall hold a hearing to determine the medical necessity of the medical procedure. The patient shall be physically present, unless the patient's medical condition precludes such presence, represented by counsel, and provided the right and opportunity to be confronted with, and to cross-examine, all witnesses alleging the medical necessity of such procedure. In such proceedings, the burden of proof by clear and convincing evidence shall be on the party alleging the medical necessity of the procedure.

    (d) The administrator of a receiving or treatment facility may, upon the recommendation of the patient's attending physician, authorize emergency medical treatment, including a surgical procedure, if such treatment is deemed lifesaving, or if the situation threatens serious bodily harm to the patient, and permission of the patient or the patient's guardian or guardian advocate cannot be obtained.

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