The American election is a complicated process. In some cases, voting takes place to choose a candidate based on the popular vote and in others, an individual is elected according to the electoral college. For example, Presidents are elected according to electoral votes.
In each state, there is a Board of Elections. The Board of elections may vary in each state, but they all have the same basic process and responsibilities.
In most states, individuals can register to vote with the Board of Elections. No person can vote in American elections without being registered to vote.
The Board of election is in charge of the entire administrative process involved in voting. That includes registering to vote and confirming the identity of the voter at the time that they vote. The name of the voter is then checked off, so that they cannot attempt to vote again.
The Board of Elections is also charged with ensuring that campaigns disclose their finances. This may include the names of those that contributed to the campaign, including the amount of those contributions. This is done to ensure that there are no illegal contributions to any one campaign. In fact, they monitor to ensure that no single contribution is above the maximum threshold. In some states, the members of the board are appointed by the Governor of that state.